In 2016, the UN General Assembly held a Special Session (UNGASS) on the World Drug Problem. This aimed to review progress made by the international community in achieving the goals set in the 2009 Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem; the soft law consensus document resulting from negotiations at the High Level Segment of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs in Vienna. The UNGASS, however, was held amidst a mood of growing discontent. Indeed, today the so-called Vienna Consensus on drug policy is fractured with the UN based control framework coming under increasing scrutiny. This is particularly so in Latin America, where, influenced largely by drug market violence, sitting presidents have, for the first time, been openly questioning the current approach. To be sure, efforts from the region brought the event forward from its original date in 2019. Within such an environment, the UNGASS meeting provided an important opportunity to engage in high-level debate on the operation of the existing international drug control system and discussion of more effective health and rights based approaches to dealing with the increasingly complex global illicit drug market. In an effort to contribute to these debates and discussions, this GDPO project produced a range of related research and analyses in the run-up to, during, and after, the 2016 meeting.