We deploy nanoscience tools to develop bottom up understanding of properties of functional nanomaterials for applications in energy, sensing and advanced electronics. The unique band structures and exotic in-plane properties have placed 2-dimensional materials as a new class of functional materials. It is harder to understand these properties because of these are ultrathin (one or few atomic layers) with spatial inhomogeneities at the nanometre length scales. We are actively looking at such inhomogeneities such as defects, electronic and optical properties using Raman, IR , photoluminescence and their electrical characteristics. These methodologies are also powerful for other thin films such as organic electronics.