Associate Professor
Telephone: (01792) 295254
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Ph.D. (University of Cambridge); M.S. (Oregon State University); B.S. (Humboldt State University)

Areas of Expertise

  • Long-term ecology
  • Forest ecology
  • Biodiversity and conservation
  • Island restoration ecology
  • Quaternary environmental change
  • Disturbance ecology
  • Natural resources management


  1. Los, S., Street-Perrott, A., Loader, N., Froyd, C., Cuní-Sanchez, A., Marchant, R. Sensitivity of a tropical montane cloud forest to climate change, present, past and future: Mt. Marsabit, N. Kenya Quaternary Science Reviews 218 34 48
  2. Harper, A., Santin, C., Doerr, S., Froyd, C., Albini, D., Otero, X., Viñas, L., Pérez-Fernández, B. Chemical composition of wildfire ash produced in contrasting ecosystems and its toxicity to Daphnia magna International Journal of Wildland Fire
  3. Jeffers, E., Whitehouse, N., Lister, A., Plunkett, G., Barratt, P., Smyth, E., Lamb, P., Dee, M., Brooks, S., Willis, K., Froyd, C., Watson, J., Bonsall, M., Froyd, C. Plant controls on Late Quaternary whole ecosystem structure and function Ecology Letters 21 6 814 825
  4. Nogué, S., de Nascimento, L., Froyd, C., Wilmshurst, J., de Boer, E., Coffey, E., Whittaker, R., Fernández-Palacios, J., Willis, K. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 7 0181
  5. Davies, A., Smith, M., Froyd, C., McCulloch, R., Froyd, C. Microclimate variability and long-term persistence of fragmented woodland Biological Conservation 213 95 105
  6. Jeffers, E., Bonsall, M., Froyd, C., Brooks, S., Willis, K. The relative importance of biotic and abiotic processes for structuring plant communities through time Journal of Ecology 103 459 472
  7. Froyd, C., Coffey, E., van der Knaap, W., van Leeuwen, J., Tye, A., Willis, K. The ecological consequences of megafaunal loss: giant tortoises and wetland biodiversity Ecology Letters 17 2 144 154
  8. Seddon, A., Froyd, C., Witkowski, A., Willis, K. A quantitative framework for analysis of regime shifts in a Galapagos coastal lagoon Ecology 95 11 3046 3055
  9. Seddon, A., Witkowski, A., Froyd, C., Kurzydłowski, K., Grzonka, J., Willis, K. Diatoms from isolated islands II: Pseudostaurosira diablarum, a new species from a mangrove ecosystem in the Galápagos Islands Diatom Research 29 2 201 211
  10. Seddon, A., Mackay, A., Baker, A., Birks, H., Breman, E., Buck, C., Ellis, E., Froyd, C., Gill, J., Gillson, L., Johnson, E., Jones, V., Juggins, S., Macias-Fauria, M., Mills, K., Morris, J., Nogués-Bravo, D., Punyasena, S., Roland, T., Tanentzap, A., Willis, K., Aberhan, M., Asperen, E., Austin, W., Battarbee, R., Bhagwat, S., Belanger, C., Bennett, K., Birks, H., Ramsey, C., Brooks, S., Bruyn, M., Butler, P., Chambers, F., Clarke, S., Davies, A., Dearing, J., Ezard, T., Feurdean, A., Flower, R., Gell, P., Hausmann, S., Hogan, E., Hopkins, M., Jeffers, E., Korhola, A., Marchant, R., Kiefer, T., Lamentowicz, M., Larocque-Tobler, I., López-Merino, L., Liow, L., McGowan, S., Miller, J., Montoya, E., Morton, O., Nogué, S., Onoufriou, C., Boush, L., Rodriguez-Sanchez, F., Rose, N., Sayer, C., Shaw, H., Payne, R., Simpson, G., Sohar, K., Whitehouse, N., Williams, J., Witkowski, A. Looking forward through the past: Identification of 50 priority research questions in palaeoecology Journal of Ecology 102 256 267
  11. Fyfe, R., Twiddle, C., Sugita, S., Gaillard, M., Barratt, P., Caseldine, C., Dodson, J., Edwards, K., Farrell, M., Froyd, C., Grant, M., Huckerby, E., Innes, J., Shaw, H., Waller, M. The Holocene vegetation cover of Britain and Ireland: overcoming problems of scale and discerning patterns of openness Quaternary Science Reviews 73 132 148
  12. Coffey, E., Froyd, C., Willis, K. Lake or bog? Reconstructing baseline ecological conditions for the protected Galápagos Sphagnum peatbogs Quaternary Science Reviews 52 74
  13. Knaap, W., Leeuwen, J., Froyd, C., Willis, K., Froyd, C. Detecting the provenance of Galapagos non-native pollen: The role of humans and air currents as transport mechanisms The Holocene 22 12 1383
  14. Seddon, A., Froyd, C., Leng, M., Milne, G., Willis, K. Ecosystem Resilience and Threshold Response in the Galápagos Coastal Zone PLoS ONE 6 7
  15. Giesecke, T., Bennett, K., Birks, H., Bjune, A., Bozilova, E., Feurdean, A., Finsinger, W., Froyd, C., Pokorný, P., Rösch, M., Seppä, H., Tonkov, S., Valsecchi, V., Wolters, S. The pace of Holocene vegetation change – testing for synchronous developments Quaternary Science Reviews 30 19-20 2814
  16. Seddon, A., Froyd, C., Witkowski, A. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) of isolated islands: new taxa in the genus navicula sensu stricto from the Galápagos Islands Journal of Phycology 47 4 861 879
  17. Coffey, E., Froyd, C., Willis, K. When is an invasive not an invasive? Macrofossil evidence of doubtful native plant species in the Galápagos Islands Ecology 92 4 805 812
  18. Froyd, C., Lee, J., Anderson, A., Haberle, S., Gasson, P., Willis, K. Historic fuel wood use in the Galápagos Islands: identification of charred remains Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19 3 207 217
  19. Gillson, L., Ekblom, A., Willis, K., Froyd, C. Holocene palaeo-invasions: the link between pattern, process and scale in invasion ecology? Landscape Ecology 23 7 757 769
  20. Leeuwen, J., Froyd, C., Knaap, W., Coffey, E., Tye, A., Willis, K., Froyd, C. Fossil Pollen as a Guide to Conservation in the Galapagos Science 322 5905 1206 1206
  21. Gillson, L., Ekblom, A., Willis, K., Froyd, C. Holocene palaeo-invasions: the link between pattern, process and scale in invasion ecology? Landscape Ecology 23 7 757 769
  22. Rasanen, S., Froyd, C., Goslar, T., Froyd, C. The impact of tourism and reindeer herding on forest vegetation at Saariselka, Finnish Lapland: a pollen analytical study of a high-resolution peat profile The Holocene 17 4 447 456
  23. Froyd, C., Willis, K., Froyd, C. Emerging issues in biodiversity & conservation management: The need for a palaeoecological perspective Quaternary Science Reviews 27 17-18 1723 1732
  24. Willis, K., Araujo, M., Bennett, K., Figueroa-Rangel, B., Froyd, C., Myers, N., Froyd, C. How can a knowledge of the past help to conserve the future? Biodiversity conservation and the relevance of long-term ecological studies Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 362 1478 187
  25. Barnekow, L., Loader, N., Hicks, S., Froyd, C., Goslar, T., Froyd, C. Strong correlation between summer temperature and pollen accumulation rates for Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula spp. in a high-resolution record from northern Sweden Journal of Quaternary Science 22 7 658
  26. Rasanen, S., Froyd, C., Goslar, T., Froyd, C. The impact of tourism and reindeer herding on forest vegetation at Saariselka, Finnish Lapland: a pollen analytical study of a high-resolution peat profile The Holocene 17 4 456
  27. Froyd, C., Froyd, C. Holocene fire in the Scottish Highlands: evidence from macroscopic charcoal records The Holocene 16 2 249
  28. Froyd, C., Bennett, K., Froyd, C. Long-term ecology of native pinewood communities in East Glen Affric, Scotland Forestry 79 3 279 291
  29. Froyd, C., Froyd, C. Fossil stomata reveal early pine presence in Scotland: implications for postglacial colonization analyses Ecology 86 3 586
  30. Robertson, I., Froyd, C., Walsh, R., Newbery, D., Woodborne, S., Ong, R., Robertson, I., Froyd, C. The dating of dipterocarp tree rings: establishing a record of carbon cycling and climatic change in the tropics Journal of Quaternary Science 19 7 657 664
  31. Robertson, I., Loader, N., Froyd, C., Zambatis, N., Whyte, I., Woodborne, S., Robertson, I., Froyd, C. The potential of the baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) as a proxy climate archive 1674 1680
  32. Loader, N., Santillo, P., Woodman-Ralph, J., Rolfe, J., Hall, M., Gagen, M., Robertson, I., Wilson, R., Froyd, C., McCarroll, D., McCarroll, D., Robertson, I., Loader, N., Froyd, C. Multiple stable isotopes from oak trees in southwestern Scotland and the potential for stable isotope dendroclimatology in maritime climatic regions Chemical Geology 252 1-2 62
  33. Bale, R., Robertson, I., Leavitt, S., Loader, N., Harlan, T., Gagen, M., Young, G., Csank, A., Froyd, C., McCarroll, D., McCarroll, D., Gagen, M., Robertson, I., Loader, N., Froyd, C. Temporal stability in bristlecone pine tree-ring stable oxygen isotope chronologies over the last two centuries The Holocene 20 1 3
  34. Robertson, I., Froyd, C., Gagen, M., Hicks, S. Climates of the past: evidence from natural and documentary archives Journal of Quaternary Science 24 5 411
  35. Harper, A., Doerr, S., Santin, C., Froyd, C., Sinnadurai, P. Prescribed fire and its impacts on ecosystem services in the UK Science of The Total Environment 624 691 703
  36. Bonsall, M., Froyd, C., Jeffers, E. Resilience: nitrogen limitation, mycorrhiza and long-term palaeoecological plant–nutrient dynamics Biology Letters 16 1 20190441
  37. Hallang, H., Hiemstra, J., Los, S., Matthews, J., Froyd, C. Carbon dioxide emissions from periglacial patterned ground under changing permafrost conditions and shrub encroachment in an alpine landscape, Jotunheimen, Norway Permafrost and Periglacial Processes


  • BIO232 Plant Ecology

    This module provides a holistic approach to plant ecology, including both classical ecological theory and practical surveying techniques. Students will become familiar with six major themes; plant formations and biomes, synecology, autecology, plant geography, paleoecology and modern plant ecology. Students will also be trained in plant taxonomy, field surveying techniques, data analysis and report writing that complement a future career in ecology, conservation or consultancy

  • BIO249 Introduction to field ecology

    This residential field course comprises practical work employing ecological techniques appropriate to sample biodiversity and environmental parameters from a range of terrestrial and freshwater habitats (freshwater systems, woodlands, sand dunes). You will learn techniques for the identification of species, practice recording accurate field notes, and gain experience in the analysis and presentation of ecological data. Furthermore, you will be able to recognise different temperate habitats and indicator species associated with them.

  • BIOM32 Ecosystems: Ecology, Conservation & Resource Management

    In this module, the students will learn to identify and understand the diversity and contrasting characteristics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on the origin and effects of various human-induced environmental impacts.


  • Thawing permafrost in warming Alpine regions – understanding changes in vegetation patterns and carbon release (current)

    Other supervisor: Dr John Hiemstra
  • How does the loss of European Ash due to Ash Dieback effect invertebrate species communities over time? (current)

    Other supervisor: Dr Cristina Santin Nuno
  • Detecting forest insect and disease outbreaks within the palaeoecological record (current)

    Other supervisor: Prof Sofia Consuegra Del Olmo
  • Vegetation fires in temperate upland heaths: environmental effects, recovery rates and management implications (current)

    Other supervisor: Dr Cristina Santin Nuno
    Other supervisor: Prof Stefan Doerr
  • An Investigation of the Variation in the Biodiversity of the Flora of mid-Wales during the Holocene (current)

    Other supervisor: Dr James Bull
  • The effects of urban development on the functional diversity of coastal dune vegetation at community and species levels. (current)

    Other supervisor: Dr John Griffin
  • Development and application of molecular toold estimating spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of freshwater and marine native and invasive species. (awarded 2019)

    Other supervisor: Prof Carlos Garcia De Leaniz
    Other supervisor: Prof Sofia Consuegra Del Olmo
  • 'A dendroecological assessment of the impact of the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae) on radial growth of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) in the Pacific Northwest region of North America' (awarded 2018)

    Other supervisor: Dr Iain Robertson
  • 'Purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) dominance over time in a ‘degraded’ Welsh peatland' (awarded 2018)

    Other supervisor: Prof Sofia Consuegra Del Olmo
  • COMPADRE PREDICTS: Demographic traits mediate plant population responses to local land use change (awarded 2018)

    Other supervisor: Prof Luca Borger

Key Grants and Projects

  • Realising the Natural Capital of Welsh Peatlands, Welsh Government Sustainable Management Scheme Grant 2017 - 2020

    , with Urbanek, E; Davies, S.; Roberts, L.; Neyland, P.; Doerr, S.; Santin, C.; Loader, N.; Kulessa, B

  • C3W: Climate Change Consortium Wales 2009 - 2015

  • Restoring native biological diversity in the Galápagos Islands: determination of baseline ecological conditions 2008

    NERC (NE/C510667/1), with K.J. Willis

  • (Science podcast) 2008

  • Millennium 2006 - 2012

    A palaeoclimate project with the central aim of determining whether the magnitude and rate of 20th Century climate change exceeds the natural variability of European climate over the last millennium.

Career History

Start Date End Date Position Held Location
2015 Present Senior Lecturer Dept. of Biosciences, Swansea University
2011 2015 Outreach Officer, Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W) Dept. of Geography,Swansea University
2005 2011 Postdoctoral Research Assistant University of Oxford
2005 2006 Stipendiary Lecturer in Physical Geography St Catherine’s College, Oxford
2004 2005 Postdoctoral Researcher University of Oulu, Finland
1989 2002 Ecologist, USDA Forest Service Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon USA