1. Furukawa, T., Rhijn, N., Fraczek, M., Gsaller, F., Davies, E., Carr, P., Gago, S., Fortune-Grant, R., Rahman, S., Gilsenan, J., Houlder, E., Kowalski, C., Raj, S., Paul, S., Cook, P., Parker, J., Kelly, S., Cramer, R., Latgé, J., Moye-Rowley, S., Bignell, E., Bowyer, P., Bromley, M. The negative cofactor 2 complex is a key regulator of drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Nature Communications 11 1
  2. Rybak, J., Ge, W., Wiederhold, N., Parker, J., Kelly, S., Rogers, P., Fortwendel, J. Mutations in hmg1, Challenging the Paradigm of Clinical Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus mBio 10 2
  3. Warrilow, A., Nishimoto, A., Parker, J., Price, C., Flowers, S., Kelly, D., Rogers, P., Kelly, S. The Evolution of Azole Resistance in Candida albicans Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51) through Incremental Amino Acid Substitutions Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
  4. Griffiths, W., Crick, P., Meljon, A., Theofilopoulos, S., Abdel-Khalik, J., Yutuc, E., Parker, J., Kelly, D., Kelly, S., Arenas, E., Wang, Y. Additional pathways of sterol metabolism: Evidence from analysis of Cyp27a1−/− mouse brain and plasma Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1864 2 191 211
  5. Warrilow, A., Parker, J., Price, C., Rolley, N., Nes, W., Kelly, D., Kelly, S. Isavuconazole and voriconazole inhibition of sterol 14α-demethylases (CYP51) from Aspergillus fumigatus and Homo sapiens International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
  6. Ahmad, S., Joseph, L., Parker, J., Asadzadeh, M., Kelly, S., Meis, J., Khan, Z. ERG6 and ERG2 Are Major Targets Conferring Reduced Susceptibility to Amphotericin B in Clinical Candida glabrata Isolates in Kuwait Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 63 2 e01900-18
  7. Zhou, W., Warrilow, A., Thomas, C., Ramos, E., Parker, J., Price, C., Vanderloop, B., Fisher, P., Loftis, M., Kelly, D., Kelly, S., Nes, W. Functional importance for developmental regulation of sterol biosynthesis in Acanthamoeba castellanii Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1863 10 1164 1178
  8. Luna-Tapia, A., Willems, H., Parker, J., Tournu, H., Barker, K., Nishimoto, A., Rogers, P., Kelly, S., Peters, B., Palmer, G. Loss of Upc2p-Inducible ERG3 Transcription Is Sufficient To Confer Niche-Specific Azole Resistance without Compromising Candida albicans Pathogenicity mBio 9 3 e00225-18
  9. Colley, T., Sehra, G., Chowdhary, A., Alanio, A., Kelly, S., Kizawa, Y., Armstrong-James, D., Fisher, M., Warrilow, A., Parker, J., Kelly, D., Kimura, G., Nishimoto, Y., Sunose, M., Onions, S., Crepin, D., Lagasse, F., Crittall, M., Shannon, J., McConville, M., King-Underwood, J., Naylor, A., Bretagne, S., Murray, J., Ito, K., Strong, P., Rapeport, G. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of a Novel and Long Acting Fungicidal Azole, PC1244 on Aspergillus fumigatus Infection Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy AAC.01941-17
  10. Butts, A., DeJarnette, C., Peters, T., Parker, J., Kerns, M., Eberle, K., Kelly, S., Palmer, G., Kelly, S. Target Abundance-Based Fitness Screening (TAFiS) Facilitates Rapid Identification of Target-Specific and Physiologically Active Chemical Probes mSphere 2 5 e00379-17
  11. Warrilow, A., Parker, J., Price, C., Garvey, E., Hoekstra, W., Schotzinger, R., Wiederhold, N., Nes, W., Kelly, D., Kelly, S. The Tetrazole VT-1161 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Trichophyton rubrum through Its Inhibition of T. rubrum CYP51 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 61 7 e00333-17
  12. Colley, T., Alanio, A., Kelly, S., Sehra, G., Kizawa, Y., Warrilow, A., Parker, J., Kelly, D., Kimura, G., Anderson-Dring, L., Nakaoki, T., Sunose, M., Onions, S., Crepin, D., Lagasse, F., Crittall, M., Shannon, J., Cooke, M., Bretagne, S., King-Underwood, J., Murray, J., Ito, K., Strong, P., Rapeport, G. In vitro and in vivo antifungal profile of a novel and long acting inhaled azole, PC945, on Aspergillus fumigatus infection Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy AAC.02280-16
  13. Rybak, J., Dickens, C., Parker, J., Caudle, K., Manigaba, K., Whaley, S., Nishimoto, A., Luna-Tapia, A., Roy, S., Zhang, Q., Barker, K., Palmer, G., Sutter, T., Homayouni, R., Wiederhold, N., Kelly, S., Rogers, P. Loss of C-5 sterol desaturase activity results in increased resistance to azole and echinocandin antifungals in a clinical isolate of Candida parapsilosis Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy AAC.00651-17
  14. Warrilow, A., Parker, J., Price, C., Nes, W., Garvey, E., Hoekstra, W., Schotzinger, R., Kelly, D., Kelly, S. The Investigational Drug VT-1129 Is a Highly Potent Inhibitor of Cryptococcus Species CYP51 but Only Weakly Inhibits the Human Enzyme Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 60 8 4530 4538
  15. Warrilow, A., Price, C., Parker, J., Rolley, N., Smyrniotis, C., Hughes, D., Thoss, V., Nes, W., Kelly, D., Holman, T., Kelly, S. Azole Antifungal Sensitivity of Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51) and CYP5218 from Malassezia globosa Scientific Reports 6 1
  16. McCourt, P., Liu, H., Parker, J., Gallo-Ebert, C., Donigan, M., Bata, A., Giordano, C., Kelly, S., Nickels, J., Kelly, S., Parker, J. Proper Sterol Distribution Is Required for Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and Virulence G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics 6 11
  17. Derbyshire, M., Michaelson, L., Parker, J., Kelly, S., Thacker, U., Powers, S., Bailey, A., Hammond-Kosack, K., Courbot, M., Rudd, J. Analysis of cytochrome b5 reductase-mediated metabolism in the phytopathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici reveals novel functionalities implicated in virulence Fungal Genetics and Biology
  18. Berkow, E., Manigaba, K., Parker, J., Barker, K., Kelly, S., Rogers, P., Kelly, S. Multidrug transporters and alterations in sterol biosynthesis contribute to azole antifungal resistance inCandida parapsilosis Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy AAC.01358-15
  19. Warrilow, A., Parker, J., Price, C., Nes, W., Kelly, S., Kelly, D. In VitroBiochemical Study of CYP51-Mediated Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 59 12 7771 7778
  20. Lamb, D., Warrilow, A., Rolley, N., Parker, J., Nes, W., Smith, S., Kelly, D., Kelly, S. Azole Antifungal Agents To Treat the Human Pathogens Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga through Inhibition of Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51) Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 59 8 4707 4713
  21. Price, C., Warrilow, A., Parker, J., Mullins, J., Nes, W., Kelly, D., Kelly, S., Schottel, J. Novel Substrate Specificity and Temperature-Sensitive Activity of Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 Supported by the Native NADPH Cytochrome P450 Reductase Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81 10 3379 3386
  22. Price, C., Parker, J., Warrilow, A., Kelly, D., Kelly, S. Azole fungicides - understanding resistance mechanisms in agricultural fungal pathogens Pest Management Science n/a n/a
  23. Warrilow, A., Hull, C., Parker, J., Garvey, E., Hoekstra, W., Moore, W., Schotzinger, R., Kelly, D., Kelly, S., Kelly, S., Kelly, D., Parker, J., Hull, C., Warrilow, A. The Clinical Candidate VT-1161 Is a Highly Potent Inhibitor of Candida albicans CYP51 but Fails To Bind the Human Enzyme Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 58 12 7121 7127
  24. Parker, J., Warrilow, A., Price, C., Mullins, J., Kelly, D., Kelly, S. Resistance to antifungals that target CYP51 Journal of Chemical Biology 7 4 143 161
  25. Warrilow, A., Hull, C., Rolley, N., Parker, J., Nes, W., Smith, S., Kelly, D., Kelly, S., Kelly, S., Kelly, D., Parker, J., Hull, C., Warrilow, A. Clotrimazole as a Potent Agent for Treating the Oomycete Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica through Inhibition of Sterol 14 -Demethylase (CYP51) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80 19 6154 6166
  26. Fan, J., Urban, M., Parker, J., Brewer, H., Kelly, S., Hammond-Kosack, K., Fraaije, B., Liu, X., Cools, H. Characterization of the sterol 14α-demethylases of Fusarium graminearum identifies a novel genus-specific CYP51 function New Phytologist n/a
  27. Kelly, S., Kelly, D., Parker, J., Warrilow, A. Azole Affinity of Sterol 14alpha-Demethylase (CYP51) Enzymes from Candida albicans and Homo sapiens Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 57 3 1360
  28. Eddouzi, J., Parker, J., Vale-Silva, L., Coste, A., Ischer, F., Kelly, S., Manai, M., Sanglard, D., Kelly, S., Parker, J. Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Clinical Candida Species Isolated from Tunisian Hospitals Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 57 7 3182 3193
  29. Nie, D., Hoobler, E., Rai, G., Warrilow, A., Perry, S., Smyrniotis, C., Jadhav, A., Simeonov, A., Parker, J., Kelly, D., Maloney, D., Kelly, S., Holman, T., Kelly, S. Discovery of a Novel Dual Fungal CYP51/Human 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor: Implications for Anti-Fungal Therapy PLoS ONE 8 6
  30. Warrilow, A., Mullins, J., Hull, C., Parker, J., Lamb, D., Kelly, D., Kelly, S., Mullins, J., Kelly, D., Parker, J., Hull, C., Warrilow, A. S279 Point Mutations in Candida albicans Sterol 14-  Demethylase (CYP51) Reduces in vitro Inhibition by Fluconazole. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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  • PM-130 Biochemistry Skills Development

    This module is designed to develop the skills required for students of biochemistry and medical biochemistry. Students meet with their tutors and will be given a series of assignments designed to develop skills in key areas such as essay writing, presentations and general numeracy. Joint session cover generic skills such as internet searching for scientific sources, referencing and plagiarism

  • PM-246 Biochemistry Skills Development II

    This module is designed to develop the skills required for students of biochemistry. Students meet with tutors and will be given a series of assignments designed to develop skills in key areas including essay writing, presentation and analysis of research papers.

  • PM-248 Amino acids, lipids and steroids

    The module reviews the pathways of fatty acid degradation (beta-oxidation) before describing the biochemistry of the multi-functional proteins that catalyse the formation of fatty acids. The synthesis of cholesterol via the mevalonate pathway is described along with the various metabolic control points and an understanding of dietary lipid transport. The further metabolism of cholesterol to oxysterols and their function is covered. The module provides a sound basis for understanding the metabolism of amino acids, lipids and steroids. The pathways of amino acid synthesis and degradation in humans are described along with an introduction to the urea cycle. The targeting of sterol biosynthesis in fungi by therapeutic agents is also covered.

  • PM-250 Infectious Disease and Parasitology

    The course will build on the fundamentals of microbiology and introduce new topics in bacteriology, mycology and parasitology. Level 5 Immunology (PM-249) is a pre-requisite. The course covers the fundamentals of infectious diseases, including clinical aspects, treatment / prevention, and experimental approaches to the study of infectious and parasitic organisms. The course will also cover topics including disease outbreaks, beneficial parasites, tropical disease and behaviour-modifying parasites.

  • PM-250C Clefydau Heintus a Pharasitoleg

    Bydd y cwrs yn adeiladu ar sylfeini microbioleg ac yn cyflwyno pynciau newydd ym meysydd bacterioleg, mycoleg a pharasitoleg. Mae Imiwnoleg Lefel 5 (PM-249) yn rhagofyniad. Mae'r cwrs yn ymdrin ag egwyddorion sylfaenol clefydau heintus, gan gynnwys agweddau clinigol, triniaeth/atal, ac ymagweddau arbrofol at astudio organebau heintus a pharasitig. Bydd y cwrs hefyd yn ymdrin â phynciau gan gynnwys achosion o glefydau, parasitiaid buddiol, clefydau trofannol a pharasitiaid sy'n effeithio ar ymddygiad.

  • PM-300 Medical Genetics

    The course is designed to provide an advanced study of the identification of human genes and the determination of the influence of human genes upon disease and health status. Gene identification provides targets for the development of new pharmaceuticals and the range of variation present in the population.

  • PM-304 Biomolecular Research Project


  • PM-334 Biochemistry Literature Review and Communication

    Students will acquire a detailed knowledge of one topical research area of key importance to their particular degree scheme.

  • PM-344 Capstone Project

    The aim of this module is to provide a capstone experience to students¿ learning, through participating in their own enquiry-based research project. Depending on the student's employability strand within the programme, the project may be laboratory, data, or education-based, but it will always involve a research question that is drawn from the literature, focused on a topic relevant to medical science. It will ask a novel research question and involve the critical analysis of research findings. Students will refine their oral and written communication skills to a graduate level through creating an introductory presentation on the project background, and a written dissertation and oral presentation on their research conclusions.

  • PM-357 Biomedical Laboratory Techniques

    The module will provide practical and in depth theory of applications and equipment available to MSci students in the biomedical research laboratories based at the Medical School. The module will provide guidelines and rationale for experimental design, and data and statistical analysis.

  • PM-357C Technegau Labordy Biofeddygol

    Bydd y modiwl yn darparu damcaniaeth ymarferol a manwl o¿r cymwysiadau ac offer sydd ar gael i fyfyrwyr MSci yn y labordai ymchwil biofeddygol sydd wedi'u lleoli yn yr Ysgol Feddygaeth. Bydd y modiwl yn darparu canllawiau a rhesymeg ar gyfer cynlluniau arbrofol, a dadansoddiad data ac ystadegau.

  • PM-402 Advanced Research Project B

    The advanced research project is a key component of the final year of study, providing students with experience of conducting cutting-edge research in the Institute of Life Science and Centre for Nanohealth over an 9-month period. The project will fall into one of the current medically-related research themes: Biomarkers and Genes; Microbes and Immunity; Devices. Students will employ a range of advanced analytical procedures to investigate a specific topic. In addition, they will gain experience in preparing a research proposal and presenting their data in various formats. Research topics will be assigned that are appropriate to a specific degree title. For example, a Genetics student could be assigned a project investigating gene function in an insect vector of a tropical disease, using the technique of RNA interference. The advanced research project is divided between 2 modules, PM-400 and PM-402. PM-402 comprises the final written dissertation.

  • PMGM21 Pharmacogenomics & Stratified Healthcare

    Pharmacogenomics and stratified health care ensure that healthcare professionals offer the right treatment, for the right person, at the right time is a fast-developing area. `Personalised medicine¿ is the buzzword of the moment, with advances in pharmacogenomic testing enabling more effective, targeted therapies to patients in the field of asthma, analgesia, oncology and beyond. Continued understanding of the genomic basis of drug response will reduce drug-related adverse effects, save costs, and ensure a better therapeutic outcome. This module will provide a comprehensive overview of the analytical strategies and techniques used in pharmacogenomics and explore some of the challenges and limitations in this field. The module will also provide an overview of the different type of pharmacogenomic biomarkers currently in use or emerging and the current feasibility of delivering `personalised medicine¿ in the clinic.