Prior to his academic career he worked in the probation service, initially as a probation officer, then as Director of one of the four Day Training Centres in the Home Office Alternatives to Custody experiment 1973, and finally as Research and Development Officer for the Mid Glamorgan Service. During his time at Swansea his research has covered the effectiveness of community sentences; bail provision in Wales; voluntary after-care of ex-prisoners;community involvement in the Gurnos and Galon Uchaf Regeneration Strategy; the resettlement of short-term prisoners; sexual crimes against children and the motivations and strategies of child sexual abusers; black and Asian offenders on probation; the history of probation in England and Wales; the international origins of probation; rehabilitation and cinema; and the skills and practice of probation officers in Jersey. In 2007 he gave the opening keynote speech to the Probation centenary 1907-2007 International Conference at the Brewery, London.He has been a member of the editorial board of the Beijing Law Review, invited assessor of a research project for the Czech Science Foundation (the main public grant agency in the Czech Republic), ESRC reviewer of research applications, and consultant to the Romania Probation Service. In October 2016 the Jersey Supervision Skills Study undertaken jointly with his colleagues Peter Raynor and Pamela Ugwudike was given the Confederation of European Probation‘s (CEP) inaugural Award for Research citing its outstanding contribution to probation practice.
Currently, he is a member of the International Advisory Board of the Probation Journal, a member of the Editorial Board of the European Journal of Probation, and a regular assessor for the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. In retirement he has researched and published on the life and career of the Welsh-Greek operatic tenor, Tano Ferendinos, and in his academic field, written, co-written or co-edited two books, seven book chapters and ten journal articles. In the publication section below is a selection from his 150 or so published works.