My PhD research focused on the impact of healthy ageing on numerical processing. These studies investigated basic numerical processing: fast, approximate, and automatic processing of numerical quantities. As approximate numerical processing abilities are thought to be primitive and innate, emerging in early infancy, it is suggested that they may constitute a preserved cognitive process in ageing. Our research found that such basic numerical processing may indeed be preserved in healthy ageing (  My PhD also investigated the impact of methodological differences on conclusions drawn about the acuity of approximate number skills:

I am currently conducting research for the University of Oxford, which aims to characterise changes in spatial reasoning skills with ageing. My research focus also lies in investigating numerical, mathematical, and conceptual cognition in typical and atypical development.

Areas of Expertise

  • Numerical Cognition
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Ageing Cognition
  • Developmental Cognition
  • Mathematical Cognition
  • Mathematical Education
  • Autism
  • Cognition in Autism
  • Autism Education
  • Participant Recruitment


  1. & Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing. Frontiers in Psychology 6
  2. & Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control. PLOS ONE 11(5), e0155543