My research broadly encompasses Energy Materials & Devices, in two main areas:


I lead Swansea's "Materials-Hub" as part of the WEFO funded SPARC II project, and as part of the SPECIFIC-IKC (EPSRC EP/N020863/1) and Sêr Solar programs, my research area focuses on solution processed photovoltaic materials and device physics. My PV research group utilizes time & frequency domain techniques such as Intensity Modulated Photovoltage Spectroscopy (IMVS) or Transient Photovoltage Decay, to characterize carrier transport, recombination and mobility in photovoltaic devices. 

Two new projects were started in October 2018. The first will develop ultra-light weight flexible tandem silicon/perovskite solar cells in collaboration with IQE plc. The second (EPSRC EP/R032750/1) is a collaboration between Materials Engineering and Computer Science to develop the next generation of novel perovskite powered IoT devices. I am also very excited to be involved with the SUNRISE GCRF (EP/P032591/1) project with the aim to rapidly accelerate and prove low cost printed PV for use in off grid Indian communities.


I lead SPECIFIC's newest research activity on novel solution processable thermoelectric materials and devices, focusing on organic and hybrid materials. See our latest work in Advanced Materials on thin film SnSe thermoelectric generators. 




  1. & A combined transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy approach for a comprehensive study of interlayer degradation in non-fullerene acceptor organic solar cells. Nanoscale
  2. & 3D Printed SnSe Thermoelectric Generators with High Figure of Merit. Advanced Energy Materials, 1900201
  3. & Origin of Exceptionally Slow Light Soaking Effect in Mesoporous Carbon Perovskite Solar Cells with AVA Additive. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 123(18), 11414-11421.
  4. & Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor. Physical Review Applied 11(4)
  5. & Sources of Pb(0) artefacts during XPS analysis of lead halide perovskites. Materials Letters
  6. & Thin Film Tin Selenide (SnSe) Thermoelectric Generators Exhibiting Ultralow Thermal Conductivity. Advanced Materials 30(31), 1801357
  7. & Outstanding Indoor Performance of Perovskite Photovoltaic Cells - Effect of Device Architectures and Interlayers. Solar RRL 3(1), 1800207
  8. & Mass Manufactured Glass Substrates Incorporating Prefabricated Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells. Advanced Materials Interfaces 6(6), 1801773
  9. & Origin of Exceptionally Slow Light Soaking Effect in Mesoporous Carbon Perovskite Solar Cells with AVA Additive. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 123(18), 11414-11421.
  10. & Low temperature sintering of aqueous TiO2 colloids for flexible, co-sensitized dye-sensitized solar cells. Materials Letters 236, 289-291.
  11. & A modified template-removal process to improve the specific surface area and hierarchical porosity of carbon materials. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 269, 24-29.
  12. & Platinized counter-electrodes for dye-sensitised solar cells from waste thermocouples: A case study for resource efficiency, industrial symbiosis and circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production 202, 1167-1178.
  13. & Process optimization for producing hierarchical porous bamboo-derived carbon materials with ultrahigh specific surface area for lithium-sulfur batteries. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 738, 16-24.
  14. & Homogeneous and highly controlled deposition of low viscosity inks and application on fully printable perovskite solar cells. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 19(1), 1-9.
  15. & Engineering of a Mo/SixNy Diffusion Barrier to Reduce the Formation of MoS2 in Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Solar Cells. ACS Applied Energy Materials 1(6), 2749-2757.
  16. & Interface Modification by Ionic Liquid: A Promising Candidate for Indoor Light Harvesting and Stability Improvement of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells. Advanced Energy Materials 8(24), 1801509
  17. & One-step deposition by slot-die coating of mixed lead halide perovskite for photovoltaic applications. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 159, 362-369.
  18. & Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 6(3), N3080-N3088.
  19. & Ionic Influences on Recombination in Perovskite Solar Cells. ACS Energy Letters
  20. & High throughput fabrication of mesoporous carbon perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A
  21. & Photonic flash-annealing of lead halide perovskite solar cells in 1 ms. J. Mater. Chem. A 4(9), 3471-3476.
  22. & Rapid processing of perovskite solar cells in under 2.5 seconds. J. Mater. Chem. A 3(17), 9123-9127.
  23. & Highly efficient, flexible, indium-free perovskite solar cells employing metallic substrates. J. Mater. Chem. A 3(17), 9141-9145.
  24. & (2015). Identifying recombination mechanisms through materials development in perovskite solar cells. , 1-3. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355675
  25. & A Transparent Conductive Adhesive Laminate Electrode for High-Efficiency Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells. Advanced Materials 26(44), 7499-7504.
  26. & Performance enhancement of solution processed perovskite solar cells incorporating functionalized silica nanoparticles. J. Mater. Chem. A 2(40), 17077-17084.
  27. Charbonneau, C., Hooper, K., Carnie, M., Searle, J., Philip, B., Wragg, D., Watson, T., Worsley, D. Rapid radiative platinisation for dye-sensitised solar cell counter electrodes. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 22, n/a-n/a.
  28. & Perovskite processing for photovoltaics: a spectro-thermal evaluation. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(45), 19338-19346.
  29. Hooper, K., Carnie, M., Charbonneau, C., Watson, T. Near Infrared Radiation as a Rapid Heating Technique for TiO2Films on Glass Mounted Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. International Journal of Photoenergy 2014, 1-8.
  30. & Low temperature sintering of binder-containing TiO2/metal peroxide pastes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(29), 11134
  31. Davies, M.L., Carnie, M., Holliman, P.J., Connell, A., Douglas, P., Watson, T., Charbonneau, C., Troughton, J., Worsley, D. Compositions, colours and efficiencies of organic–inorganic lead iodide/bromide perovskites for solar cells. Materials Research Innovations 18(7), 482-485.
  32. Carnie, M.J., Charbonneau, C., Davies, M., Mabbett, I., Watson, T., Worsley, D. (2013). TiO2 Film Morphology, Electron Transport and Electron Lifetime in Ultra-fast Sintered Dye-sensitized Solar Cells. Presented at MRS Proceedings, doi:10.1557/opl.2012.1707
  33. Vyas, N., Wragg, D.A., Charbonneau, C., Carnie, M.J., Watson, T.M. (2013). Low Cost TCO Less Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Application. Presented at ECS Transactions,(24), 39-46. doi:10.1149/05324.0039ecst
  34. Vyas, N., Charbonneau, C., Carnie, M.J., Worsley, D.A., Watson, T.M. (2013). An Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Coating for Low Cost Metal Mounted Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Presented at ECS Transactions,(24), 29-37. doi:10.1149/05324.0029ecst
  35. & A one-step low temperature processing route for organolead halide perovskite solar cells. Chemical Communications 49(72), 7893
  36. & Ultra-fast sintered TiO2films in dye-sensitized solar cells: phase variation, electron transport and recombination. J. Mater. Chem. A 1(6), 2225-2230.
  37. & Photocatalytic Oxidation of Triiodide in UVA-Exposed Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. International Journal of Photoenergy 2012, 1-8.
  38. & Ultra-fast co-sensitization and tri-sensitization of dye-sensitized solar cells with N719, SQ1 and triarylamine dyes. Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(26), 13318
  39. & Addressing Bottlenecks in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Manufacture Using Rapid Near-infrared Heat Treatments. MRS Proceedings 1447
  40. Carnie, M., Watson, T., Worsley, D. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency. International Journal of Photoenergy 2012, 1-9.
  41. Carnie, M., Watson, T., Worsley, D. (2012). Triiodide Photooxidation and Subsequent Regeneration in UVA Exposed Nano-Structured TiO2 Solar Cell Devices. Presented at MRS Proceedings, doi:10.1557/opl.2012.847
  42. Holliman, P.J., Connell, A., Davies, M.L., Carnie, M.J., Watson, T.M. Functional Materials for Sustainable Energy Applications.
  43. Bryant, D.T.J., Carnie, M.J., Watson, T., Worsley, D. (2012). Electrochemical Analysis for the Realization of Low Temperature Processed ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Presented at ECS Transactions,(51), 11-21. doi:10.1149/05051.0011ecst
  44. Carnie, M.J., Watson, T.M., Bryant, D.T.J., Worsley, D.A. (2011). Electrochemical characterization of the UV-photodegradation of dye-sensitized solar cells and usage in the assessment of UV-protection measures. Presented at ECS Transactions, doi:10.1149/1.3628613
  45. Arnold, J.C., Watson, T., Alston, S., Carnie, M., Glover, C. The use of FTIR mapping to assess phase distribution in mixed and recycled WEEE plastics. Polymer Testing 29(4), 459-470.


  • EG-218 Materials for Energy

    This module starts with short practical sessions (3 x 3 hours) where the students will be introduced to lab-scale manufacture of energy materials devices - namely dye-sensitised solar cells. This will introduce the students to many of the manufacturing methods that are used for a range of lab scale energy technologies. For the remainder of the module, we will then move to the lecture theatre and group-work environment to introduce the concept of the Energy Trilema, i.e issues related to energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability. Materials developed and used for energy generation and storage are critical to all aspects of the Trilema and the large amounts of UKRI funding available reflect the challenges faced by Materials Scientists in their respective fields. The module is student led. After the practical session, students will have an opportunity to choose the energy sector that most interests them. They will then conduct an individual literature search to find a particular filed of materials research that is critically important to their chosen energy sector and more importantly, the Energy Trilema. In groups the students will then decide which field to base their assessment on. In groups the students are required to produce a poster, based on a research paper of their choice. They will then present their poster to a panel. Self and peer assessment will be used throughout and guest lecturers will give their perspectives on energy materials research. The module will be 100% continually assessed throughout the semester

  • EG-286 Materials Practicals 2a: Microstructure Development in Alloy Systems

    This module is concerned with the microscopic examination, measurement and interpretation of the microstructures of metals. This involves the development skills in the microstructural characterisation of metals and the development of sound microstructural measurement methodologies. This is then reinforced by logical reasoning based on an understanding of binary phase diagrams of the nature of the phase transformations occurring in metals and of the influence of processing on microstructure. This module also details the mathematical descriptions necessary for the solution of a variety of critical engineering problems, with an emphasis on materials processing.

  • EGSM12 Applied Instrumental & Analytical Techniques

    The various research groups based in the department of Materials Engineering hosts a truly World-class suite of materials and coatings characterisation and analysis equipment. The module is designed to give an overview of all the techniques available to students during their postgraduate research.


  • Radiative dewatering in faecal sludge management (current)

    Student name:
    Other supervisor: Dr Ian Mabbett
  • Degradation Mechanisms on novel organic coated steel products (current)

    Student name:
    Other supervisor: Prof Cris Arnold
  • Ultra-Thin Flexible Silicon-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells (current)

    Student name:
    Other supervisor: Dr Christian Bryant
  • Development of the Latest Generation of Prefinished Steels with a Clear Impermeable Coating (current)

    Student name:
    Other supervisor: Dr Matthew Davies
  • Organic and hybrid printable thermoelectric materials (current)

    Student name:
    Other supervisor: Prof Nicholas Lavery
  • 'Optimisation of Perovskite Solar Cells For Slot-Die Coating' (awarded 2018)

    Student name:
    Other supervisor: Prof Trystan Watson
  • ''Encapsulation of solar cells'' (awarded 2017)

    Student name:
    Other supervisor: Dr Matthew Davies