The research and development of silicon CMOS based Lab-On-A-Chip (LOAC) technology platforms that can be developed with future innovations leading to new tools and thereby better understanding of the immunological response that underpins many disease states including allergy, diabetes and cancer.  

The use of modern semiconductor techniques to provide transparent substrates proving the ability for in-situ advanced biological experimentation of single cells.

The work on the modelling, fabrication and testing of the organic/inorganic microelectronic devices, such as Al/DNA/Si Schottky diodes. Controlling optical and electronic properties of the metal-inorganic semiconductor structures by introducing DNA interface layers can be vital for novel electronic devices for biotechnology applications.

This research area is led jointly by Dr Paul Holland and Dr Petar Igic who collaborate with Dr Cathy Thornton and Dr Shareen Doak from Swansea University’s College of Medicine and from the Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre.

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Research Tools

Industry Standard Silvaco TCAD OMNI software package for Universities allows state of the art manufacturing process and device simulation.

Cadence Analog IC is available.

Funding Awards

EPSRC: Multi-Technique Bio-Analytical Investigation at the Single / Sub-Cellular Level Using a New Lab-On-A-Chip Technology Platform; First grant scheme; grant number EP/I038799/1 (PI: P. Holland, COI: C. Thornton)

EPSRC Funded PhD Studentship Oct 2012- Mar 2016: The Application of Semiconductor Technology for Effective Single Cell Studies

Industrial (SPTS Technologies) / Departmental Funded PhD: Research and Development of a CMOS Lab-On-A-Chip Silicon IC Technology

Employer Study Partnership funded Industrial MPhil (SPTS Technologies): Development of an Optically Transparent Silicon CMOS Technology Platform for Biological Analysis


  • 15 High Speed PC Cluster with Silvaco Software

Centre for Nanohealth Fabrication Equipment:

  • SPTS - Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) tool (200mm wafer capability)
  • SPTS - ICP plasma etch tool (200mm wafer capability)
  • Anealsys Rapid Thermal Anneal (RTA) tool
  • Suss Microtec Mask Aligner (200mm wafer capability)
  • Suss Microtec Substrate Conformal Imprint Lithography
  • Raith E-Line Electron Beam Lithography
  • PVD
  • Hitachi S4800 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
  • JPK Nanowizard AFM platform
  • JPK Electrical modes AFM
  • UHV Nano probing system

Device Characterization Laboratory consisting of oscilloscopes, function generators, power analyzers, micro-processor development systems, spectrum analyzers, high voltage test equipment, thermal device characterisation equipment, HP4124 parameter analyzer, a probe station, CV characterisation equipment, and a wirebonding machine.

Selected Publications
  • Batcup, S.; Wills, J.; Lodzinski, M.; Wright, C.; Doak, S.; Holland, P.; Igic, P.: “Modification of Schottky interface by the inclusion of DNA interlayer to create metal / organic / inorganic structures”, Microelectronics (MIEL), 2012 28th International Conference on, DOI: 10.1109/MIEL.2012.6222801, 2012 , pp. 81 – 84 (IEEE Conference Publication)
  • N. Jankovic, D. Pantic, S. Batcup and P. Igic: “A lateral double-diffused magnetic sensitive metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with integrated n-type Hall plate”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, 2012, p. 263507
  • Igic, P.; Holland, P.; Batcup, S.; Lerner, R.; Menz, A.: “Technology for Power Integrated Circuits with Multiple Vertical Power Devices”, Power Semiconductor Devices and IC's, 2006 IEEE International Symposium on, 04-08 June 2006 Page(s):1 – 4 (IEEE Conference Publication)
  • Manshian BB, Jenkins GJS, Williams PM, Wright C, Barron AR, Brown AP, Hondow N, Doak SH (2013). Single walled carbon nanotubes: differential genotoxic potential associated with physico-chemical properties. Nanotoxicology, 7, 144-156.
  • Doak SH, Manshian B, Jenkins GJS, Singh N (2012). In vitro genotoxicity testing strategy for nanomaterials and the adaptation of current OECD guidelines. Mut Res, 745, 104-111.
  • Singh N, Jenkins GJS, Nelson BC, Marquis BJ, Maffeis TGG, Brown AP, Williams PM, Wright CJ, Doak SH (2012). The role of iron redox state in the genotoxicity of ultrafine superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Biomaterials, 33, 163-170.
  • Griffiths SM, Singh N, Jenkins GJS, Williams PM, Orbaek AW, Barron A, Wright C, Doak SH (2011). Dextran coated ultrafine superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles: compatibility with common fluorometric and colorimetric dyes. Analytical Chemistry, 83, 3778-3785.
  • Walker K-AD, Doak SH, Dunstan PR (2011) Mechanisms of cell-cell adhesion identified by immunofluorescent labelling with quantum dots: A scanning near-field optical microscopy approach. Ultramicroscopy, 111: 1200-1205.
  • Jenkins GJS, Johnson G, Zair Z, Doak SH (2010) Genotoxic thresholds, mechanisms, DNA repair, and susceptibility in human populations. Toxicology, 278, 305-310.
  • Singh N, Manshian B, Jenkins GJS, Griffiths S, Williams P, Maffeis TG, Wright CJ, Doak SH (2009). Nanogenotoxicology: the DNA damaging potential of engineered nanomaterials. Biomaterials, 30, 3891-3914.
  • Doak SH, Griffiths SM, Manshian B, Singh N, Williams PM, Brown AP, Jenkins GJS (2009). Confounding experimental considerations in nano(geno)toxicology. Mutagenesis, 24, 285-293.
  • Doak SH (2008).  Aneuploidy in upper gastro-intestinal tract cancers – A potential prognostic marker?  Mut Res, 651,93-104.
  • Doak SH, Brusehafer K, Dudley E, Quick E, Johnson G, Newton RP, Jenkins GJS (2008).  No-observed effect levels are associated with up-regulation of MGMT following MMS Exposure.  Mut Res, 648, 9-14.
  • Doak SH, Rogers D, Jones B, Francis L, Conlan RS, Wright C (2008).  High resolution imaging using a novel atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope hybrid instrument: essential sample preparation aspects.  Histochem Cell Biol,130, 909-916.
  • Doak SH, Johnson G, Quick E, Jenkins GJS, Parry JM (2007).  Mechanistic influences for mutation induction curves after exposure to DNA-reactive carcinogens.  Cancer Res, 67, 3904-3911.