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Style Guide (Paper)

Camera-Ready Copy Formatting Specifications


Workshop Publications

Papers accepted by VG99 Programme Committee will be published in two stages, namely workshop preprint and an editorial book. The preprint will be used mainly by delegates during the workshop, and by the volume editors and the publisher as a draft of the book to be published after the workshop. 

The preprint will be printed in black and white only except for its cover page. Accompany the preprint is a visual proceedings (a CD-ROM) that contains colour images and short videos which authors wish to distribute to other delegates. 

The book will be printed in black and white mainly, but it will have a colour cover (or a jacket) and include 8-16 pages of colour plates, which will be selected by the editors from images submitted by chapter authors. There is a plan to publish a visual proceedings in the form of a CD-ROM accompanying the book, and it is being considered by the publisher. Should the CD-ROM be considered not feasible, a long term WWW-site will be set up to support the book. 

Manuscript Preparation

This Section is provided by Springer-Verlag London, with some small modifications made by VG99 Secretariat to accommodate some additional requirements. Only papers prepared according to these specifications can be accepted for publication. Papers submitted in an unsuitable format will be returned to the author for correction. The camera-ready copy (CRC) submitted by you will be reproduced directly by the offset process. 


  • Text and illustrations should fill, but not extend beyond, an area of 120 x 195mm. 
  • use a 10-point font size with line spacing of 2pts (see specimen page
  • use a traditional serifed typeface (Times New Roman preferred), except for computer programs for which a fixed character-width typeface should be used (Courier New preferred). Italic type may be used to emphasise words in running text. Bold type and underlining should be avoided. 
  • Text should be justified on both left and right margins, not ragged. 
  • Please do not type page numbers on the CRC. Please number the pages in pencil on the back of each page. 
  • Do not use running heads. 
  • If page depth (i.e. height) is too short, add space above and below subheadings. 
  • Please keep a complete photocopy of your paper in case of accidents or production queries.


Please refer to the specimen files when producing your CRC. 


There is no precise restriction on the length of each paper to be included in the preprint. However, there will be a limit to the total length of the book and thereby a limit to each chapter. We advise authors not to go over 20 pages at this stage. 


Headings should be capitalised (i.e. all words, except prepositions and conjunctions with less than five letters, should have a capital initial) and should, with the exception of the title, be aligned to the left. The font sizes are (Please see the specimen files for the actual font sizes): 
Title 16pt bold
2nd level 14pt bold
3rd level 12pt bold
4th level 10pt italic
5th level 10pt roman
N.B. Do not type a new heading on a page unless there is space for at least two lines of text as well. Insert extra space above other headings or around tables and illustrations in order to space out the page to a depth of 195mm. 


  • Line Drawings

  • Ensure you supply a clear, well-drawn original (i.e. not a sketch or a photocopy). Line drawings must be positioned on the CRC, centred on the type width. The preferred position of a line drawing is just below the paragraph where the drawing is first referred to if there is enough space. Labelling should not be set smaller than 8pt. 
  • Halftones

  • If previously agreed with Springer, halftone illustrations (black and white photos/images) may be included in your CRC. Please position halftones in the same way as line drawings. 
  • Captions

  • Figures should be numbered, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. The caption should be positioned underneath the illustration and separated from it by one blank line. Captions may be set slightly smaller than the main text (i.e. 9 pt). 


Permission must be sought from the copyright holder to reproduce previously published materials. A standard form for this purpose may be obtained from your volume editors(s). Completed forms must be submitted with your CRC. 


Check a draft-quality print-out carefully. Do not print the final version until you are certain there are no further corrections. 

The finished CRC must be checked carefully. 

When printing the final CRC, please note the following: 

  • Print on one side only. 
  • Use A4 (210 x 297 mm) paper if possible. Do not use coloured or poor quality papers. 
  • The print on the final CRC should be black and well-defined. The output should not be patchy or have any broken fonts. 
  • Please use a high resolution printer, preferably a laser printer with at least 300dpi.


Two hardcopies of CRC are required for each paper. Place the CRCs between two pieces of strong cardboard, wrap it carefully and send it to your volume editor(s) by registered mail or by some other secured method. (For online submission, see the Submission section). 


References may be set slightly smaller than the main text (i.e. 9pt). 

Bear in mind the following general points: 

  • The information must be accurate. Check references against source. 
  • The information must be sufficient to locate the reference. 
  • The text citations and the reference list must tally.


  • Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. references cited only in a table or figure legend should be numbered as through they were cited in the first text cross-reference to the relevant table or figure. 
  • Identify references in the text, tables and figure legends by Arabic numerals in square brackets (e.g. "... as has been demonstrated recently [19].").


  • List the references in numerical order. 
  • If a work has more than six authors, list only the first three, followed by "et al.". 
  • If abbreviations of journal titles are used, they must be abbreviated in accordance with BS 4148 (1970, 1975), which is compatible with ISO 833 and ANSI Z39.5 (1969). 
  • The following styles are used for the main categories of references.
Journal article
  1. de Kleer J. An assumption-based TMS. Artif Intell 1986; 28127-162
  1. Mehlhorn K. Data structures and algorithms, vol 1, Sorting and searching. Springer-Verlag, London, 1984
  2. Mellish CS. Computer interpretation of natural language descriptions. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1995
Chapter in a book (or paper in a proceedings)
  1. Quint V, Valton I, Bedor H. Grif - an interactive environment for TeX. In: Desarmenien J (ed) TeX for scientific documentation. Springer-verlag, Heidelberg, 1986, pp 145-158 (Lecture notes in computer science no. 236)
  1. Fagin BS. A papallel execution model for Prolog. PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1987

Specimen Files (Style Files)

The style of the preprint is the same as that for Springer "Workshops In Computing" series. The following style files which can be downloaded are strongly recommended for type-setting VG99 papers: 
wicsbook.sty A specimen file in LaTeX provided by Springer LaTeX. A specimen file in LaTeX provided by Springer LaTeX.
wicsbook.tex A specimen file in LaTeX provided by Springer LaTeX. A specimen file in LaTeX provided by Springer LaTeX.
WICS.doc A Microsoft © Word 97 template.
WICS.wd6 A Microsoft © Word v6 template.
WICS.rtf A specimen file in rich text format.


Camera-Ready Copy (CRC)

You may submit your CRCs in hardcopy (two copies) by registered mail as mentioned above. CRCs of each paper should be accompanied by a cover page containing the name, address and email of each author. In addition, telephone and Fax numbers should be provided for the contact author. The contact information of all authors will be listed in a separate section in the preprint and the book. Do not include email address, telephone and fax numbers in the paper head section. 

Alternatively you may upload a digital copy to VG99's ftp site at a directory created specifically for your paper. The ftp site is: The directory name is composed of the first three letters of the surname of the first author, followed by the paper number (you should be able to find this number in all correspondences from VG99 Secretariat related to your paper). For example, if the surname of the first author is Smith and 8 is the paper number, the CRC of the paper should be uploaded to  /vg99/smi8/ For preprint, there will be no detailed editing work. Please submit your CRC in the form of a postscript file, a PDF file, a MS-Word file or a RTF file. Please avoid the submission of a LaTeX file(s) if possible. 

Please email VG99 Secretariat as soon as you have uploaded your files successfully to the VG99 site. 

Images and Videos for the Visual Proceedings

Please upload your images and videos to a sub-directory named as "vp" (e.g. /pub/vg99/smi8/vp/) in your CRC directory. The preferred image formats are TIFF and JPEG. The preferred video format is MPEG. If the total size of your images and videos exceeds 20M, please let VG99 Secretariat know before uploading. The editors of the Visual Proceedings may decide to exclude some images and videos due to limited space available on a CD-ROM. We apologise in advance should this affect your submissions. 

File Grouping and Compression

The VG99 ftp site is a UNIX site. You may first combine your files to be uploaded into a single file using "tar" and compress it using "compress" or "gzip". Always using binary ftp for reliable transmission. Please do not use other software to combine and compress your files. 

Chapters for the Book

Detailed instructions will be given in March 1999. 

If you are uncertain about any points or have any other queries, please contact your volume editor(s).

Page maintained by Mark W. Jones (local organiser).