Dr Paul Williams

Dr Paul Williams

Paul Williams


Associate Professor, College of Engineering


Specialist Subjects: Membrane Separation Processes, Colloid Science, Computer Simulation, Mathematical Modeling, Freeze Separation

Find out more


Main interests include colloid science and dispersion characterization, modeling of membrane filtration processes and novel separation techniques.

  • Characterization of Dispersion Properties
  • Membrane Filtration
  • Novel Separation Techniques: Freeze Separation Processes

Associate Member of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE)

Member of the Centre for Complex Fluids Processing and Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER) research groups.

Selected publications

  • PM Williams, Single-walled carbon nanotubes: differential genotoxic potential associated with physico-chemical properties, Nanotoxicology, 2013, 7, 2, pp.144, [ISSN:1743-53901743-5404], [DOI: 10.3109/17435390.2011.647928]
  • PM Williams, Freeze desalination: An assessment of an ice maker machine for desalting brines, Desalination, 2013, 308, pp.219, [ISSN:00119164], [DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2012.07.037]
  • PM Williams, Review of the dielectric properties of nanofiltration membranes and verification of the single oriented layer approximation, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2012, 173, pp.1, [ISSN:00018686], [DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2012.02.001]
  • PM Williams, Experimental study of the ultrafiltration for bi-disperse silica systems, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2012, 42, 1-3, [ISSN:1944-39941944-3986], [DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2012.682802]
  • PM Williams, Characterisation and application of a novel positively charged nanofiltration membrane for the treatment of textile industry wastewaters, Water Research, 2012, 46, 1, pp.33, [ISSN:00431354], [DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.10.011]
  • PM Williams, The role of iron redox state in the genotoxicity of ultrafine superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, Biomaterials, 2012, 33, 1, pp.163, [ISSN:01429612], [DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.09.087]
  • PM Williams, Effect of Membrane Surface Charge on Filtration of Heavy Metal Ions in the Presence and Absence of Polyethylenimine, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2012, 42, 1-3, [ISSN:19443994], [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2012.2441]
  • PM Williams, Experimental Study of the Ultrafi Ltration for Bi-disperse Silica Systems, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2012, 42, 1-3, [ISSN:19443994], [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2012.2469]
  • PM Williams, Amino acid rejection behaviour as a function of concentration, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2011, 164, 1-2, [ISSN:00018686], [DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2011.02.008]
  • PM Williams, Dextran Coated Ultrafine Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Compatibility with Common Fluorometric and Colorimetric Dyes, Analytical Chemistry, 2011, [DOI: 10.1021/ac200103x]
  • PM Williams, Positively charged nanofiltration membranes: Review of current fabrication methods and introduction of a novel approach, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2011, [DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2010.12.010]
  • PM Williams, Assessment of desalination technologies for high saline brine applications - discussion paper, DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, 2011, [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2011.1374]
  • PM Williams, Polymer enhanced membrane filtration of metals: retention of single and mixed species of metal ions based on adsorption isotherms, DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, 2011, [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2011.1628]
  • PM Williams, Characterization of a ceramic ultrafiltration membrane in different operational states after its use in a heavy-metal ion removal process, Water Research, 2010, 44, 11, [ISSN:00431354], [DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.03.036]
  • PM Williams, Analysis of quantum dot fluorescence stability in primary blood mononuclear cells, Cytometry Part A, 2010, [DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.20932]
  • PM Williams, NanoGenotoxicology: The DNA damaging potential of engineered nanomaterials, Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 23-24, [DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.04.009]
  • PM Williams, Confounding experimental considerations in nanogenotoxicology, Mutagenesis, 2009, [DOI: 10.1093/mutage/gep010]
  • PM Williams, Application of salinity gradient power for brines disposal and energy utilization, DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, 2009, [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2009.924]
  • PM Williams, Cleaning results of new and fouled nanofiltration membrane characterized by contact angle, updated DSPM, flux and salts rejection, Applied Surface Science, 2008, 254, 13, [ISSN:01694332], [DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.12.052]
  • PM Williams, Quantifying extra interaction forces in charged colloidal dispersions from frontal ultrafiltration experiments, 2003, pp.67-83, [ISBN:0927-7757], [DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2003.07.007]
  • PM Williams, Finite difference solution of the 2-dimensional Poisson-Boltzmann equation for spheres in confined geometries, 2002, pp.103-115, [ISBN:0927-7757], [DOI: 10.1016/S0927-7757(01)01111-6]
  • PM Williams, Linearized transport model for nanofiltration: Development and assessment, 2002, pp.760-773, [ISBN:0001-1541], [DOI: 10.1002/aic.690480411]
  • PM Williams, Prediction of the rate of cross-flow ultrafiltration of colloids with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient and viscosity - theory and experiment, 2001, pp.3083-3099, [ISBN:0009-2509], [DOI: 10.1016/S0009-2509(00)00552-2]


  • EG-210 - Thermodynamics of Process Design (14/15)
  • EG-209 - Pilot Plant Operations (14/15)
  • EG-217 - Process and Pilot Plant Operations (14/15)
  • EGA319 - Environmental Engineering Design Project (14/15)
  • EGCM33 - M.Eng Research Project (14/15)
  • EGA326 - Chemical Engineering Design Project (14/15)
  • EGCM36 - Desalination (14/15)
  • EGC401 - Industrial Engineering and Research Practice (14/15)
  • EG-220 - Process and Pilot Plant Operations A (14/15)
  • EG-230 - Process and Pilot Plant Operations B (14/15)

Research theses supervised


  • 2014 - Membrane separation processes as a means of treating fracking wastewaters. (2nd Supervisor: Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe)
  • 2014 - Development of models and strategies for macromolecule recovery using membranes. (2nd Supervisor: Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe)
  • 2013 - Development of novel functionalised super-hydrophilic membranes as a strategy for removal of organic impurities from urban water sources (2nd Supervisor: Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe)
  • 2012 - Rheology of sputum (2nd Supervisor: Dr David Daniels)
  • 2011 - Investigation of freeze concentration technology for innovative separations (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2011 - Rheological aspects and modelling of blood flow during coagulation (2nd Supervisor: Dr Karl Hawkins)
  • 2011 - Improved extraction, purification and elucidation of fungal bioactive compounds (2nd Supervisor: Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe)
  • 2010 - Mathematical modelling of lungs and membrane mass exchangers (2nd Supervisor: Dr Karl Hawkins)
  • 2010 - Deep bed filtration: modelling, assessment and impact of novel filtration materials (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2010 - 'Downstream processing of marine Microalgae' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2009 - 'Ultrafiltration of polydisperse colloidal silica' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2009 - 'Viscosity of Colloidal Dispersions' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2009 - The treatment of oily waste water (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2008 - Removal of low concentrations of silver from aqueous solutions using adsorption methods (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2008 - ''Assessment of Freezing Desalination Technologies'' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2008 - An Investigation into Inorganic Fouling of NF Membranes (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2007 - ''The removal of ammonia-nitrogen and degradation of 17a - ethynylestradiol and mestranol using partial fixed bed continuous reactor (PFBCR) and moving bed continuous reactot (MVCR)'' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2006 - the study of biological particle interactions using atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic shear assays and membrane separation processes (2nd Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2005 - Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fibrin Gels (2nd Supervisor: Professor Phylip Williams)
  • 2005 - The Cavitation properties of Liquids: Temperature and Stressing Rate Effects. (2nd Supervisor: Professor Phylip Williams)


  • 2014 - The formation of bacterial biofilms at surfaces is a significant problem in many industries and medicine. Biofilms often lead to the failure of processes such as water management, food production and medical implant techniques. At Swansea University we are developing novel methods that disrupt biofilm formation at surfaces and are looking to recruit a doctoral student to undertake a research project optimising biofilm control methods. The research of the project will be in collaboration with industry as part of an EngD sponsored by the EPSRC. The student will use advanced surface and particle characterisation techniques alongside flow chamber hydrodynamic shear assaysto study the formation and control of industrially relevant biofilms. The work wil ltake place within the Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre and the Centre for Nano-Health at Swansea as part of the COATED Centre for Doctoral Training. (2nd Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)


  • 2011 - Rheological aspects and modelling of blood flow during coagulation (2nd Supervisor: Dr Karl Hawkins)


  • 2007 - Critical Review of Environmental Water Quality in Carmarthenshire (2nd Supervisor: Dr Elizabeth Probert)
  • 2005 - Ultrafiltration of Bi-Modal Colloidal Silica Dispersions (2nd Supervisor: Dr Anthony Higgins)
  • 2005 - Atomic force microscopy studies of stahlococucus aureus biofilms. (2nd Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2005 - Microstructural and Rehological Studies of Biopolymer Gels. (2nd Supervisor: Professor Phylip Williams)


  • 2013 - Processing of concentrated brines
  • 2013 - Fracking wastewater treatment via membrane processes
  • 2012 - 'Design and Testing of a Membrane Osmometer'
  • 2011 - '''''Ultrafiltration and Characterisation of Heparin'''''
  • 2008 - Particle Interactions within Bioseparation Processes