Dr Paul Williams

Dr Paul Williams

Paul Williams


Associate Professor, College of Engineering


Specialist Subjects: Membrane Separation Processes, Colloid Science, Computer Simulation, Mathematical Modeling, Freeze Separation

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Main interests include colloid science and dispersion characterization, modeling of membrane filtration processes and novel separation techniques.

  • Characterization of Dispersion Properties
  • Membrane Filtration
  • Novel Separation Techniques: Freeze Separation Processes

Associate Member of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE)

Member of the Centre for Complex Fluids Processing and Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER) research groups.

Selected publications

  • Darren L. Oatley-Radcliffe, Paul M. Williams, Foreward to Special Issue: Hybrid Systems, Desalination, 2015, 363, [ISSN:00119164], [DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2015.02.041]
  • Paul M. Williams, Mansour Ahmad, Benjamin S. Connolly, Darren L. Oatley-Radcliffe, Technology for freeze concentration in the desalination industry, Desalination, 2015, 356, [ISSN:00119164], [DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2014.10.023]
  • N.H. Ramli ., PROPERTIES OF THE CAKE LAYER IN THE ULTRAFILTRATION OF POLYDISPERSE COLLOIDAL SILICA DISPERSIONS, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2014, 03, 11, [ISSN:23217308], [DOI: 10.15623/ijret.2014.0311039]
  • Darren L. Oatley-Radcliffe, Steffan R. Williams, Matthew S. Barrow, Paul M. Williams, Critical appraisal of current nanofiltration modelling strategies for seawater desalination and further insights on dielectric exclusion, Desalination, 2014, 343, [ISSN:00119164], [DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2013.10.001]
  • Bella B Manshian, Gareth JS Jenkins, Paul M Williams, Chris Wright, Andrew R Barron, Andrew P Brown, Nicole Hondow, Peter R Dunstan, Rob Rickman, Ken Brady, Shareen H Doak, Single-walled carbon nanotubes: differential genotoxic potential associated with physico-chemical properties, Nanotoxicology, 2013, 7, 2, pp.144, [ISSN:1743-53901743-5404], [DOI: 10.3109/17435390.2011.647928]
  • P.M Williams, M Ahmad, B.S Connolly, Freeze desalination: An assessment of an ice maker machine for desalting brines, Desalination, 2013, 308, pp.219, [ISSN:00119164], [DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2012.07.037]
  • Darren L Oatley, Laia Llenas, Ramon , Paul M Williams, Xavier , Miquel Rovira, Review of the dielectric properties of nanofiltration membranes and verification of the single oriented layer approximation, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2012, 173, pp.1, [ISSN:00018686], [DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2012.02.001]
  • Nor Hanuni Ramli, Paul Melvyn Williams, Experimental study of the ultrafiltration for bi-disperse silica systems, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2012, 42, 1-3, [ISSN:1944-39941944-3986], [DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2012.682802]
  • Shuying Cheng, Darren L Oatley, Paul M Williams, Chris J Wright, Characterisation and application of a novel positively charged nanofiltration membrane for the treatment of textile industry wastewaters, Water Research, 2012, 46, 1, pp.33, [ISSN:00431354], [DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.10.011]
  • Neenu Singh, Gareth J.S Jenkins, Bryant C Nelson, Bryce J Marquis, Thierry G.G Maffeis, Andy P Brown, Paul M Williams, Chris J Wright, Shareen H Doak, The role of iron redox state in the genotoxicity of ultrafine superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, Biomaterials, 2012, 33, 1, pp.163, [ISSN:01429612], [DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.09.087]
  • Almutairi, F.M., Williams, P.M., Lovitt, R.W., Effect of Membrane Surface Charge on Filtration of Heavy Metal Ions in the Presence and Absence of Polyethylenimine, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2012, 42, 1-3, [ISSN:19443994], [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2012.2441]
  • Ramli, N.H., Williams, P.M., Experimental Study of the Ultrafi Ltration for Bi-disperse Silica Systems, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2012, 42, 1-3, [ISSN:19443994], [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2012.2469]
  • Jason Shirley, Stephen Mandale, Paul M Williams, Amino acid rejection behaviour as a function of concentration, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2011, 164, 1-2, [ISSN:00018686], [DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2011.02.008]
  • Paul Williams, Dextran Coated Ultrafine Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Compatibility with Common Fluorometric and Colorimetric Dyes, Analytical Chemistry, 2011, [DOI: 10.1021/ac200103x]
  • Paul Williams, Positively charged nanofiltration membranes: Review of current fabrication methods and introduction of a novel approach, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2011, [DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2010.12.010]
  • Paul Williams, Assessment of desalination technologies for high saline brine applications - discussion paper, DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, 2011, [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2011.1374]
  • Paul Williams, Polymer enhanced membrane filtration of metals: retention of single and mixed species of metal ions based on adsorption isotherms, DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, 2011, [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2011.1628]
  • J Llanos, P.M Williams, S Cheng, D Rogers, C Wright, , P, Characterization of a ceramic ultrafiltration membrane in different operational states after its use in a heavy-metal ion removal process, Water Research, 2010, 44, 11, [ISSN:00431354], [DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.03.036]
  • Paul Williams, Analysis of quantum dot fluorescence stability in primary blood mononuclear cells, Cytometry Part A, 2010, [DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.20932]
  • Paul Williams, NanoGenotoxicology: The DNA damaging potential of engineered nanomaterials, Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 23-24, [DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.04.009]
  • Paul Williams, Confounding experimental considerations in nanogenotoxicology, Mutagenesis, 2009, [DOI: 10.1093/mutage/gep010]
  • Paul Williams, Application of salinity gradient power for brines disposal and energy utilization, DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, 2009, [DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2009.924]
  • Ahmed Al-Amoudi, Paul Williams, A.S Al-Hobaib, Robert W Lovitt, Cleaning results of new and fouled nanofiltration membrane characterized by contact angle, updated DSPM, flux and salts rejection, Applied Surface Science, 2008, 254, 13, [ISSN:01694332], [DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.12.052]
  • W.Richard Bowen, Paul M Williams, Jonathan Wilson, Quantifying extra interaction forces in charged colloidal dispersions from frontal ultrafiltration experiments, 2003, pp.67-83, [ISBN:0927-7757], [DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2003.07.007]
  • W.Richard Bowen, Paul M Williams, Finite difference solution of the 2-dimensional Poisson-Boltzmann equation for spheres in confined geometries, 2002, pp.103-115, [ISBN:0927-7757], [DOI: 10.1016/S0927-7757(01)01111-6]
  • W. Richard Bowen, Julian S Welfoot, Paul M Williams, Linearized transport model for nanofiltration: Development and assessment, 2002, pp.760-773, [ISBN:0001-1541], [DOI: 10.1002/aic.690480411]
  • W. Richard Bowen, Paul M Williams, Prediction of the rate of cross-flow ultrafiltration of colloids with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient and viscosity - theory and experiment, 2001, pp.3083-3099, [ISBN:0009-2509], [DOI: 10.1016/S0009-2509(00)00552-2]


  • EG-210 - Thermodynamics of Process Design (15/16)
  • EGCM33 - M.Eng Research Project (15/16)
  • EGCM36 - Desalination (15/16)
  • EGA332 - Applied Process Engineering (15/16)
  • EGC401 - Industrial Engineering and Research Practice (15/16)
  • EG-220 - Process and Pilot Plant Operations A (15/16)
  • EG-230 - Process and Pilot Plant Operations B (15/16)
  • EGA319 - Environmental Engineering Design Project (15/16)
  • EGA326 - Chemical Engineering Design Project (15/16)

Research theses supervised


  • 2015 - The fabrication of novel antibacterial surfaces for reduced bioufouling of functional surfaces used in healthcare and aerospace industries. (1st Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2015 - Graphene Enhanced Membranes for Contaminated Water Treatment (GEMCoWaT) (1st Supervisor: Dr Chedly Tizaoui)
  • 2014 - Development of models and strategies for macromolecule recovery using membranes. (1st Supervisor: Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe)
  • 2013 - Development of novel functionalised super-hydrophilic membranes as a strategy for removal of organic impurities from urban water sources (1st Supervisor: Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe)
  • 2012 - Rheology of sputum (1st Supervisor: Dr David Daniels)
  • 2011 - 'Assessment of the freeze concentration process on the separation of industrial effluents' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2011 - 'A Rheological biomarker for the detection of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia' (1st Supervisor: Dr Karl Hawkins)
  • 2011 - Improved extraction, purification and elucidation of fungal bioactive compounds (1st Supervisor: Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe)
  • 2010 - 'Residence Time Distribution in a Membrane Blood Oxygenator' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Karl Hawkins)
  • 2010 - To be defined
  • 2010 - 'Modelling of Deep Bed Filtration' (1st Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2010 - 'Downstream processing of marine Microalgae' (1st Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2009 - 'Ultrafiltration of polydisperse colloidal silica' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2009 - 'Viscosity of Colloidal Dispersions' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2009 - The treatment of oily waste water (1st Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2008 - Removal of low concentrations of silver from aqueous solutions using adsorption methods (1st Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2008 - ''Assessment of Freezing Desalination Technologies'' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2008 - An Investigation into Inorganic Fouling of NF Membranes (1st Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2007 - ''The removal of ammonia-nitrogen and degradation of 17a - ethynylestradiol and mestranol using partial fixed bed continuous reactor (PFBCR) and moving bed continuous reactot (MVCR)'' (1st Supervisor: Dr Robert Lovitt)
  • 2006 - the study of biological particle interactions using atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic shear assays and membrane separation processes (1st Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2005 - Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fibrin Gels (1st Supervisor: Professor Phylip Williams)
  • 2005 - The Cavitation properties of Liquids: Temperature and Stressing Rate Effects. (1st Supervisor: Professor Phylip Williams)


  • 2014 - The formation of bacterial biofilms at surfaces is a significant problem in many industries and medicine. Biofilms often lead to the failure of processes such as water management, food production and medical implant techniques. At Swansea University we are developing novel methods that disrupt biofilm formation at surfaces and are looking to recruit a doctoral student to undertake a research project optimising biofilm control methods. The research of the project will be in collaboration with industry as part of an EngD sponsored by the EPSRC. The student will use advanced surface and particle characterisation techniques alongside flow chamber hydrodynamic shear assaysto study the formation and control of industrially relevant biofilms. The work wil ltake place within the Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre and the Centre for Nano-Health at Swansea as part of the COATED Centre for Doctoral Training. (1st Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)


  • 2011 - 'A Rheological biomarker for the detection of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia' (1st Supervisor: Dr Karl Hawkins)


  • 2007 - Critical Review of Environmental Water Quality in Carmarthenshire (2nd Supervisor: Dr Elizabeth Probert)
  • 2005 - Ultrafiltration of Bi-Modal Colloidal Silica Dispersions (2nd Supervisor: Dr Anthony Higgins)
  • 2005 - Atomic force microscopy studies of stahlococucus aureus biofilms. (1st Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2005 - Microstructural and Rehological Studies of Biopolymer Gels. (1st Supervisor: Professor Phylip Williams)


  • 2015 - The fabrication of novel antibacterial surfaces for reduced bioufouling of functional surfaces used in healthcare and aerospace industries. (1st Supervisor: Dr Christopher Wright)
  • 2014 - 'Osmotic Power - Is It feasible?'
  • 2014 - 'Energy Evaluation of a Hybrid Ro-Freeze Desalination Plant'
  • 2014 - 'Freeze concentration of wastes of ions/precious metals/valuable material'
  • 2014 - 'Study of Electrocoagulation to recover phophorus as struvite'
  • 2013 - 'Processing of Brine'
  • 2013 - 'Fracking wastewater treatment via membrane processes'
  • 2012 - 'Design and Testing of a Membrane Osmometer'
  • 2011 - '''''Ultrafiltration and Characterisation of Heparin'''''
  • 2010 - To be defined
  • 2008 - Particle Interactions within Bioseparation Processes