Professor Johann Sienz

Professor Johann Sienz

Johann Sienz

 

Deputy Head of College of Engineering and Director of Teaching

Overview

Specialist Subjects: Sructural Shape and Topology Optimization, Polymer Processing Simulation and Design (moulding and extrusion), Computational Mechanics, Optimization Algorithms, Biomechanical Engineering

  • PhD, University of Wales Swansea, 1994
  • MSc, University of Wales Swansea, 1990
  • BEng (Hons), University of Central Lancashire, 1989
  • Diplom-Ingenieur (FH), FH Augsburg, Germany, 1989

 

Find out more

Research

  • Polymer Processing Simulation and Design
  • Structural topology and shape optimization
  • Biomedical application

Selected publications

  • J Sienz, Nonlocal buckling of double-nanoplate-systems under biaxial compression, Composites Part B: Engineering, 2013, 44, 1, pp.84, [ISSN:13598368], [DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.07.053]
  • J Sienz, Multiscale hybrid atomistic-FE approach for the nonlinear tensile behaviour of graphene nanocomposites, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2013, 46, pp.147, [ISSN:1359835X], [DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2012.11.006]
  • J Sienz, Decomposed surrogate based optimization of carbon-fiber bicycle frames using Optimum Latin Hypercubes for constrained design spaces, Computers & Structures, 2013, 119, pp.48, [ISSN:00457949], [DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2012.11.014]
  • J Sienz, A computational multi-scale approach for the stochastic mechanical response of foam-filled honeycomb cores, Composite Structures, 2012, 94, 5, [ISSN:02638223], [DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.11.001]
  • J Sienz, Vibration frequency of graphene based composites: A multiscale approach, Materials Science and Engineering: B, 2012, 177, 3, [DOI: 10.1016/j.mseb.2011.12.024]
  • J Sienz, Optimization-driven design of dies for profile extrusion: Parameterization, strategy, and performance, Polymer Engineering & Science, 2012, [DOI: 10.1002/pen.23228]
  • J Sienz, Quantified Surface Improvement Using Temperature Cycle Injection Moulding, International Polymer Processing The Journal of the Polymer Processing Society, 2011, [DOI: 10.3139/217.2454]
  • J Sienz, Nonlocal buckling behavior of bonded double-nanoplate-systems, Journal of Applied Physics, 2011, 110, 8, [ISSN:00218979], [DOI: 10.1063/1.3644908]
  • J Sienz, Sensitivity analysis for the design of profile extrusion dies, Computers & Structures, 2010, 88, 9-10, [ISSN:00457949], [DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2010.02.003]
  • J Sienz, Finite element analysis of the middle ear transfer functions and related pathologies, Medical Engineering & Physics, 2009, [DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2009.06.009]
  • J Sienz, Converging flow inline rheometry for engineering extensional viscosity of uPVC, Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 2009, [DOI: 10.1179/174328909X387739]
  • J Sienz, Water assisted injection moulding: development of insights and predictive capabilities through experiments on instrumented process in parallel with computer simulations, Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 2008, [DOI: 10.1179/174328908X283438]
  • J Sienz, Gas Assisted Injection Molding of an Industrial Part: 3D Simulation Provides Virtual Molding Trials, International Polymer Processing, 2007, 2007, 02, pp.173-178, [ISSN:0930-777X], [DOI: 10.3139/217.0996]
  • J Sienz, Parameterization and optimization strategies for the automated design of uPVC profile extrusion dies, 2004, pp.180-194, [ISBN:1615-147X], [DOI: 10.1007/s00158-004-0440-x]
  • J Sienz, Gas displacing liquids from tubes: high capillary number flow of a power law liquid including inertia effects, 2004, pp.2969-2982, [ISBN:0009-2509], [DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.04.029]
  • J Sienz, Formulation of the Audze-Eglais Uniform Latin Hypercube design of experiments, 2003, pp.493-506, [ISBN:0965-9978], [DOI: 10.1016/S0965-9978(03)00042-5]

Teaching

  • EG-M33 - Computational Case Study for Research Engineers (14/15)
  • EGA220 - Aerospace Systems (14/15)
  • EG-700 - MRes Engineering Research Thesis (14/15)

Research theses supervised

PhD

  • 2012 - 'Development of Evolutionary based Techniques with Applications to Engineering ' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Antonio Orlando)
  • 2010 - Simulation for Additive Layer Manufacturing and Design (2nd Supervisor: Professor Stephen Brown)
  • 2010 - Relating the NDT signature to performance loss in damaged composites (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Arnold)
  • 2009 - 'Temperature Cycle Injection Moulding of Mirco Channels' (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2009 - 'Seat shape acquisition, analysis and optimisation for pressure ulcer prevention' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Paul Holland)
  • 2009 - Optimization of tall structured buildings with multi-uncertainties (2nd Supervisor: Dr Chenfeng Li)
  • 2007 - Structural Optimization in Engineering design with a focus on process automation (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2006 - Development and testing of a particle swarm optimizer to handle hard unconstrained and constrained problems (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2006 - The development of coupled acoustic and structural topology and shape optimization for aplication in internal aviation panel design. (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2002 - The Calibration Process in Thermoplastics Extrusion (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2000 - Development and Application of Flexible Optimization and Robust Design Methods (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2000 - Computational Three dimensional rubber probile die optimisation on the basis of accurate experimental material parameter determination (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2000 - Computational Three dimensional uPVC profie die optimisation with experimental material parameter determination (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 1994 - Automatic CAD Model Based Simulation of PVC Extrusion and Calibration (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)

EngD

  • 2013 - Thermal imaging based melt pool depth prediction system (2nd Supervisor: Dr Nicholas Lavery)
  • 2013 - Aligning energy storage solutions for wind energy convertors with locality (2nd Supervisor: Dr Thomas Croft)
  • 2012 - Thermal imaging based melt pool depth prediction system (2nd Supervisor: Professor Stephen Brown)
  • 2012 - Intelligent Beams for Concept Vehicle Design (2nd Supervisor: Dr Wulf Dettmer)
  • 2012 - Simulation of Titanium Alloy Impact Behaviour (2nd Supervisor: Professor Eduardo De Souza Neto)
  • 2012 - Computational Modelling and Verification of the ALM Melt Pool (2nd Supervisor: Professor Stephen Brown)
  • 2012 - Multi-scale Flow Modelling of Medical Devices for Improved Design and Manufacture (2nd Supervisor: Dr Raoul Van Loon)
  • 2011 - Intelligent Beams for Concept Vehicle Design (2nd Supervisor: Dr Wulf Dettmer)
  • 2011 - Controlling and modelling the structure of multi-phase polymeric materials and the effects on properties (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Arnold)
  • 2011 - Novel manufacturing methods and design approaches applied to the Land Speed Record vehicle, Bloodhound SSC (2nd Supervisor: Dr Benjamin Evans)
  • 2011 - Experimental material characterisation and testing procedures for complex computational modelling (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Arnold)
  • 2011 - Experimental material characterisation and testing procedures for complex computational modelling (2nd Supervisor: Dr Helen Davies)
  • 2011 - Experimental material characterisation and testing procedures for complex computational modelling (2nd Supervisor: Dr Fawzi Belblidia)
  • 2010 - Advanced Engineering Design: loading and material uncertainty (2nd Supervisor: Dr Antonio Gil)
  • 2010 - Numerical analysis of new age composite materials and evaluating their suitability for various applications (2nd Supervisor: Dr David Bould)
  • 2010 - Development of heat transfer modelling techniques for solving complex industrial problems supported with experimentation (2nd Supervisor: Dr David Bould)
  • 2010 - Development of heat transfer modelling techniques for solving complex industrial problems supported with experimentation (2nd Supervisor: Dr Benjamin Evans)
  • 2009 - 'The analysis of bonded repair solutions for primary composite aircraft structures' (2nd Supervisor: Professor Stephen Brown)
  • 2008 - Experimental Investigations into the behaviour of composite aircraft wing repairs (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Arnold)

MPhil

  • 2012 - 'Development of Evolutionary based Techniques with Applications to Engineering ' (2nd Supervisor: Dr Antonio Orlando)
  • 2008 - The Performance Analysis of Large, Structured-Wall HDPE Pipes (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2004 - Computational Investigation of Human Body Movement and Associated Muscle Activity (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Pittman)
  • 2003 - An experimental study of heat transfer int he cooling channel of gas turbine rotor blads (2nd Supervisor: Professor Arthur Lees)

MRes

  • 2009 - 'The analysis of bonded repair solutions for primary composite aircraft structures' (2nd Supervisor: Professor Stephen Brown)
  • 2009 - The Characterisation of the Structural Performance of Thermal Insulation Panels (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Arnold)
  • 2008 - 'Finite Element based Analysis and Optimization of Composite Materials with Racing Car seat Investigations' (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Arnold)
  • 2008 - Design and Optimization of Joints in a Carbon Fibre Bicycle Frame (2nd Supervisor: Professor Stephen Brown)
  • 2008 - Experimental investigations into the behaviour of composite aircraft wing repairs (2nd Supervisor: Dr John Arnold)

MSc

  • 2008 - Aether's 100X Range Optimization using particle swarm optimization

Additional information

Work history

Academic

  • Senior/ Research Assistant, University of Wales Swansea, 1992 - 1996
  • Senior Research Assistant/Honorary Lecturer, University of Wales Swansea, 1996 - 1999
  • Lecturer, University of Wales Swansea, 1999 - 2001
  • Senior Lecturer, University of Wales Swansea, 2001 – 2007
  • Reader, University of Wales Swansea, 2007 -

Industrial and Industrial Work Experience

  • MAN Roland, Germany, 1987
  • MAN Technologie, Germany, 1988
  • Company Director Diktyon Ltd, UK, 1998 - 1999
  • MBB (now EADS), Germany, 1981, 1985
  • MAN, Germany, 1987, 1988

Editorship or Editorial Board Membership

  • Review Editor: Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, International Journal published by Springer
  • Edited/Co-edited works: 3 Proceedings of theASMO UK / ISSMO Conference on Engineering Design Optimization
  • Reviewer of papers for 15 international journals

Research Centre/Consortia Leadership

  • Director: Centre for Polymer Processing Simulation and Design.
  • Director: ADOPT Research Group
  • Director: Welsh Composites Consortium

Awards and invited lectures

Prize winning applications and awards

Publications

  • Best Paper Presentation Prize in the design engineering section of the 45th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/ AHS/ASC, 2004.
  • Best Poster Prize in the category: ‘Best Materials and Design Innovation’ awarded by Materials KTN: ‘3D simulation of water assisted injection Moulding’, 2007
  • Alan Glanvill Award for published work of particular merit in the field of polymers as awarded by the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, 2007.

Academic

  • 4 year academic scholarship, Government of Federal State Bavaria, 1984
  • 2 year academic scholarship, DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service), 1990

Invited Lectures

  • ‘Fluid Assisted Injection Moulding Simulation: Virtual Prototyping for Complex Parts’, 8th CST/5th ECT International Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 2006.
  • ‘Gas Assisted Injection Moulding: 3-D Simulation and Industrial Case Studies’, PPE 05 International Conference, Bradford, 2005.
  • ‘Simulation and Optimization for Polymer Processing’, 7th CST/4th ECT International Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 2004.
  • ‘Gas assisted injection moulding of a handle: three dimensional simulation and comparison with moulding trials and moldflow simulation’, 6th ESAFORM International Conference, Italy, 2003.
  • ‘Automated Optimization of Extrusion Die Design for PVC Profiles’, 6th ESAFORM International Conference, Italy, 2003.
  • ‘Parameterization techniques for two- and three-dimensional automated optimisation of PVC extrusion dies’, 18th Annual Polymer Processing Society Meeting, Guimarães, Portugal, 2002.
  • ‘Optimization of thermoplastics extrusion die design: parameterization, algorithms and strategies’, 5th ESAFORM 2002 International Conference, Cracow, Poland, 2002.
  • ‘Optimisation strategies for extrusion die design’, 4th ESAFORM 2001 International Conference, Liege, Belgium, 2001.
  • ‘3-D Simulation of Advanced Injection Moulding Technologies’, 4th ESAFORM 2001 International Conference, Liege, Belgium, 2001.
  • ‘Engineering design optimization within the FIDO environment’, 1º Workshop em Mecânica Computacional, UFPE, Recife, Brazil, 2000.

Publications

Research Monograph

  • E. Hinton, J. Sienz and M. Özakça, ‘Analysis and Optimization of Prismatic and Axisymmetric Shell Structures: Theory, Practice and Software’, Springer Verlag, 2003, ISBN: 1852334215. 528 pages, 247 illustrations, CD-Rom with ~ 60,000 lines of source code.

Refereed Journal Papers (IF = impact factor)

  • E. Hinton, N.V.R. Rao and J. Sienz, ‘Finite element structural shape and thickness optimisation of axisymmetric shells’, Engineering Computations (IF 0.54), Pineridge Press, Swansea, UK, 9, 499-527, 1992.
  • E. Hinton, M. Özakça and J. Sienz, ‘Optimum shapes of vibrating axisymmetric plates and shells’, Journal of Sound and Vibration (IF 0.83), Academic Press Ltd, UK, 167, 511-528, 1993.
  • E. Hinton and J. Sienz, ‘Fully stressed topological design of structures using an evolutionary procedure’, Engineering Computations (IF 0.54), Pineridge Press, Swansea, UK, 12, 229-244, 1995.
  • M. Papadrakakis, Y. Tsompanakis, E. Hinton and J. Sienz, ‘Advanced solution methods in topology optimisation and shape sensitivity analysis’, Engineering Computations (IF 0.54), MCB University Press, UK, 13(5), 57 - 90, 1996.
  • J. Sienz and E. Hinton, ‘Reliable structural optimisation with error estimation, adaptivity and robust sensitivity analysis’, Computers and Structures (IF 0.74), 64(1-4), 31-63, 1997.
  • J. Sienz, I. Szarvasy, E. Hinton and M.L. Andrade, ‘Computational modelling of 3D objects by using fitting techniques and subsequent mesh generation’, Computers and Structures (IF 0.74), 78(1-3), 397-413, 2000.
  • I. Szarvasy, J. Sienz, J.F.T. Pittman and E. Hinton, ‘Computer aided optimisation of profile extrusion dies: definition and assessment of the objective function’, International Polymer Processing (IF 0.69), XV (2000) 1, 28 – 39, 2000.
  • S. Bulman, J. Sienz and E. Hinton, ‘Comparisons between algorithms for structural topology optimization using a series of benchmark studies’, Computers and Structures (IF 0.74), 79, 1203-1218, 2001.
  • J. Sienz and S. Bulman, ‘Adaptivity and optimisation – ADOPT’, Engineering Computations (IF 0.54), 18 (1/2), pp 10 – 47, 2001. ISSN 0264-4401.
  • S.J. Bates, J.F.T. Pittman, J. Sienz and D.S. Langley, ‘Enhancing Slit Die Performance by Optimization of Restrictor Profiles’, Polymer Engineering & Science (IF 1.22), 43(8), 1500-1511, 2003.
  • S.J. Bates, J. Sienz and D.S. Langley, ‘Formulation of the Audze-Eglais Design of Experiments using a Genetic Algorithm’, Advances in Engineering Software (IF 0.37), 34(8), 493-506, 2003, 2003.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘Gas displacing liquids from tubes: high capillary number power law flow including inertia effects’, Chemical Engineering Science (IF 1.66), 59(14), pp 2969-2982, 2004.
  • H. Ettinger, J. Sienz, J.F.T. Pittman and A. Polynkin, ‘Parameterization and optimization strategies for the automated design of uPVC profile extrusion dies’, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (IF 0.81), 28(2-3), pp 180 - 194, 2004.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘Modelling of cyclic 3-dimensional heat transfer in injection moulding’, International Polymer Processing (IF 0.69), XIX (2004) 4, 408 - 418, 2004.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘Gas displacing liquids from non-axisymmetric tubes: high capillary number shear thinning fluids’, Chemical Engineering Science (IF 1.66), 60, 1591 – 1602, 2005.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘3D-simulation of primary and secondary gas penetration in injection moulding: comparison with experimental results’, International Polymer Processing (IF 0.69), XX (2005) 2, 191 – 201, 2005.
  • F. Belblidia, J.F.T. Pittman, A. Polynkin and J. Sienz, ‘Gas displacing viscous shear thinning liquids from tubes: effects of cooling before gas injection’, Chemical Engineering Science (IF 1.66), 60 (2005), 4953 – 4956, 2005.
  • S.M.B. Afonso, J. Sienz and F. Belblidia, ‘Structural optimisation strategies for simple and integrally stiffened plates and shells’, Engineering Computations (IF 0.54), 22(4), 429 – 452, 2005.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘Gas assisted injection molding of a handle: three dimensional simulation and experimental verification’, Polymer Engineering & Science (IF 1.22), 45(8), 1049 – 1058, 2005.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘Industrial application of gas assisted moulding: numerical predictions and experimental trials’, Plastics, Rubbers & Composites (IF 0.41), 34(5/6), 236 – 246, 2005.
  • J. Sienz, S.J. Bates and J.F.T. Pittman, ‘Flow restrictor design for extrusion slit dies for a range of materials: simulation and comparison of optimization techniques’, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design (IF 0.84), 42, 430 - 453, 2006.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘prediction of gas core geometry in gas assisted injection molding using a short cut method', Polymer Engineering & Science (IF 1.22), 42(5), 713 – 720, 2007.
  • [AR = PhD, JFTP, AP = co-workers. JS: 15% contribution to all aspects of the work, including leadership of the project.]
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘Gas assisted injection molding of an industrial part: 3-d simulation provides virtual molding trials’, International Polymer Processing (IF 0.69), XXII (2007) 2, 173 - 178, 2007.
  • A. Rippl, J.F.T. Pittman, A. Polynkin and J. Sienz, ‘Simultaneous determination of shear and extensional viscosities and wall slip by on-line rheometry with parameter fitting: an application to EPDM rubber’, Rheologica Acta (IF=1.43), 46, 847 – 860, 2007.

Chapters in Books

  • J. Sienz and E. Hinton, ‘Chapter 13: Integrated design and analysis modelling in structural shape optimisation’, in M. Papadrakakis and G. Bugeda, (eds), Advanced computational methods in structural mechanics, pp 235 - 265, CIMNE, Barcelona, 1996. ISBN 84-87867-75-8.
  • J. Sienz and E. Hinton, ‘Chapter 12: Sensitivity analysis for shape optimisation’, in M. Papadrakakis and G. Bugeda, (eds), Advanced computational methods in structural mechanics, pp 216 - 234, CIMNE, Barcelona, 1996. ISBN 84-87867-75-8.
  • J. Sienz, B. Hassani and E. Hinton, ‘Chapter 11: Structural optimisation’, in M. Papadrakakis and G. Bugeda, (eds), Advanced computational methods in structural mechanics, pp 185 - 215, CIMNE, Barcelona, 1996. ISBN 84-87867-75-8.
  • J. Sienz, C. Silva, E. Hinton and I. Szarvasy, ‘Chapter 13: Computer aided design of extrusion dies’, in M. Papadrakakis and B.H.V. Topping (eds), Innovative computational methods for structural mechanics, Saxe-Coburg Publications, pp 271 - 303, Edinburgh, 1999. ISBN 1-874672-05-9.
  • J. Sienz, E. Hinton, G. Bugeda, and S. Bulman, ‘Chapter 11: Some studies on integrating topology and shape optimization’, in M. Papadrakakis and B.H.V. Topping (eds), Innovative computational methods for structural mechanics, Saxe-Coburg Publications, pp 223 - 256, Edinburgh, 1999. ISBN 1-874672-05-9.
  • M. Papadrakakis, Y. Tsompanakis, N.D. Lagaros, E. Hinton, J. Sienz, G. Thierauf and J. Cai, ‘Chapter 10: Innovative computational methods for structural optimization’, in M. Papadrakakis and B.H.V. Topping (eds), Innovative computational methods for structural mechanics, Saxe-Coburg Publications, pp 195 - 222, Edinburgh, 1999. ISBN 1-874672-05-9.
  • J. Sienz, J.F.T. Pittman and A. Polynkin, ‘Simulation and Optimization for Polymer Processing’, Invited Lecture, in B.H.V. Topping and C.A. Moares (eds), Progress in Engineering Computational Technology, Saxe-Coburg Publications, pp 189 – 218, Edinburgh, UK. 2004. ISBN 1-874672-22-9.
  • A. Polynkin, J.F.T. Pittman and J. Sienz, ‘Gas Assisted Injection Moulding: 3D Simulation and Industrial Case Studies’, Invited Lecture, in P.D. Coates (ed), Polymer Process Engineering 05: Enhanced Polymer Processing, pp 288 – 325, Bradford, UK, 2005.
  • J. Sienz, J.F.T. Pittman and A. Polynkin, ‘Fluid Assisted Injection Moulding Simulation: Virtual Prototyping for Complex Parts’, Invited Lecture, in B.H.V. Topping, G. Montero and R. Montenegro (eds), Innovation in Engineering Computational Technology, pp 287 - 308, Saxe-Coburg Publications, Edinburgh, UK. 2006.
  • J.F.T. Pittman, A. Polynkin, J. Sienz, L. Mulvaney-Johnson, E. Brown, A. Dawson, P.D. Coates, K. Vinning, J. Butler, ‘Water assisted injection moulding: development of insights and predictive capabilities though experiments on an instrumented process in parallel with computer simulations’, in P.D. Coates (ed), Polymer Process Engineering 05: Enhanced Polymer Processing, pp 323 – 358, Bradford, UK, 2007. ISBN 13-978-1-85143-248-6.

Edited Works

  • J. Sienz (ed), Proceedings of the 2nd ASMO UK / ISSMO Conference on Engineering Design Optimization, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK, July 2000, ISBN: 0-86076-168-1.

  • O.M. Querin, J. Sienz, V.V. Toropov and P.D. Gosling (eds), Proceedings of the 5th ASMO UK / ISSMO Conference on Engineering Design Optimization, Stratford-upon-Avon, July 2004, CD-ROM, ISBN: 0-85316-246-8.

  • J. Sienz, V.V. Toropov and O.M. Querin (eds), Proceedings of the 6th ASMO UK / ISSMO Conference on Engineering Design Optimization, Oxford, July 2006, CD-ROM.

Funding awards

  • Advanced Injection Moulding Technologies for Plastics, Simulation and Validation’, 1999 – 2002 (EPSRC).
  • ‘Computer Aided Optimisation of Extrusion Die Design’, 2000 – 2004 (EPSRC).
  • ‘Central Parallel Computing Facility For the Department of Mechanical Engineering’, 2001 – 2004 (EPSRC).
  • ‘The Calibration Process In Thermoplastics Extrusion: Computer Simulation And Optimisation With Experimental Trials’, 2002 – 2005 (EPRSC).
  • ‘Injection Moulding Process Intensification’, 2004 – 2005 (Carbontrust).
  • ’Development of 3D simulation of water assisted injection moulding of polymers guided and validated by experimentation using an instrumented process’, 2006 – 2008 (EPRSC).