Swansea University - lloyd_alan

Dr. Alan Lloyd

Specialist Subjects: Egyptology; Herodotus; ancient warfare.

Research Interests:

Herodotus and the Greek tradition on Egypt, Egyptian epigraphy, ancient warfare, particularly naval history, history of Late Period and Graeco-Roman Egypt

Current Projects and Research Grants

A social history of Egypt

A study of the hieroglyphic evidence for the status and role of the Egyptian aristocracy during the Ptolemaic Period

Conferences Organised:

Death in Ancient Egypt (1983)

Gold of the Gods (1984), both in association with the Extra-Mural Department (now DACE) at Swansea 

Battle in Antiquity (April 24 1993)

What is a God?  Studies in the Nature of Greek Divinity (July 1994), both organised with colleagues in the University of Wales Institute of Classics and Ancient History

Research Groups:

The Saqqara Epigraphic Survey





Herodotus Book II, Introduction, Leiden, 1975, p. xiv+194.

Herodotus Book II, Commentary 1-98, Leiden, 1976, pp. 397.

Herodotus Book II, Commentary 99-182, Leiden, 1988, pp. vi+330.

Erodoto. Le Storie.  Libro II. Egitto,  Milan, 1989, pp. lxxxii + 409.

Gods, Priests and Men.  Studies in the Religion of Pharaonic Egypt by Aylward M. Blackman  (Studies in Egyptology), London and New York, 1998.



Book Chapters:

'Coptic and Greek Inscriptions and Sealings', in G.T. Martin and others, The Tomb of Hetepka, Oxford, 1978, pp. 102–20.

'Two figured Ostraca', in id., The Tomb of Hetepka, pp. 100–1.

'Egypt 664–323', in B. Trigger and others, Ancient Egypt: a Social History, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 279–348, 359–364, 412–27.  Reprinted several times.

 With W.V. Davies, A. el-Khouli, and A.J. Spencer, Saqqara Tombs. I. The Mastabas of Mereri and Wernu, London, 1984, pp. xi +35 with 40 plates.

'La baja época, 664–323 a.C.', in B.G. Trigger, B.J. Kemp, D.O'Connor, and A.B. Lloyd, Historia del egipto antiguo, Barcelona,1985, pp. 345–425, 436–441, 497–516.  Translation and slight revision of 3.

'Herodotus on Cambyses.  Some thoughts on recent work ', in A. Kuhrt and H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg (eds), Achaemenid History. III. Method and Theory (Proceedings of the London 1985 Achaemenid History Workshop), Leiden, 1988, pp. 55–66. 

'Manetho and the Thirty-first Dynasty', in J. Baines and others (eds.), Pyramid Studies and other Essays presented to I.E.S. Edwards (EES Occasional Publications 7), London, 1988, pp. 154–160.

'Psychology and Society in the Ancient Egyptian Cult of the Dead', in William Kelly Simpson (ed.), Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt (Yale Egyptological Studies 3) (New Haven, 1989), 117–33.

'Il periodo tardo (664–323 a.C.)', in B.G. Trigger, B.J. Kemp, D. O'Connor, A.B. Lloyd, Storia sociale dell'Antico Egitto, Roma, 1989, pp. 351–435, 449–53, 495–508.

 'Herodotus on Egyptians and Libyans', in O. Reverdin and B. Grange(eds.), Hérodote et les peuples non grecs (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 35) (Vandoeuvres-Genève, 1990), pp. 215–44.

With A.J. Spencer and A. el-Khouli, Saqqâra tombs. II. The mastabas of Meru, Semdenti, Khui and others (EES archaeological survey of Egypt, fortieth memoir) (London, 1990), pp. xv + 53, pls 36. 

'Egypt, History of (Dyn. 27–31)', in David Noel Freedman (ed.). The Anchor Bible Dictionary, II (New York etc., 1992), pp. 364–7.

'The Great Inscription of Khnumhotpe II at Beni Hasan', in Alan B. Lloyd (ed.), Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. Gwyn Griffiths (EES Occasional Publication 8) (London, 1992), pp. 21–35.

'Egypt, 404–332 B.C.', in D.M. Lewis, J. Boardman, S. Hornblower, an M. Ostwald (eds), The Cambridge Ancient History 2nd edn, VI, The Fourth Century B.C. (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 337–360.

'Herodotus on Egyptian Buildings.  A Test Case', in A. Powell (ed.), Greek History and Historians (Routledge, 1995), pp. 273–300.

‘Cambyses in Late Tradition’, M.A.Leahy etc (eds), The Unbroken Reed. Studies in the Culture and Heritage of Ancient Egypt in Honour of A.F. Shore (Egypt Exploration Society Occasional Publications 11) (London, 1994), pp. 195–204.. 

‘Philip II and Alexander the Great: the Moulding of Macedon's Army’, in Alan B Lloyd (ed.), Battle in Antiquity  (London, 1996), pp. 169–98.

‘Amasis’ (69), ‘Apries’ (131), ‘Egypt.  Pre-Ptolemaic’ (510-11), ‘Manetho’ (917), ‘Psammetichus I’ (1269), ‘Saites’ (1346–7), and ‘Sesostris’ (1396), in The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edn (eds S Hornblower and A Spawforth) (Oxford, 1996)

‘Herodotus’ (370–1) and ‘Manetho’ (464–5), in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (ed. Kathryn A Bard) (London, 1999).

‘The Late Period, 664–331’ and ‘The Ptolemaic Period’, in The Oxford History of Egypt (ed.. I Shaw), Oxford University Press, London, New York etc, 2000, pp. 369–421.

‘The Saite Navy’, in The Sea in Antiquity, British Archaeological Reports International Series 899 (eds G J Oliver and others), Oxford, 2000, pp. 81–91.

Articles on ‘Ancient Historians’, ‘Apries’, ‘Herodotos’, ‘Necho I’, ‘Necho II’, and   ‘Philae’, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt (ed. Donald B Redford), New York, 2000.


Journal Papers:

‘Perseus and Chemmis’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 89(1969),    pp. 79–86.

‘The Egyptian Labyrinth’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 56(1970), pp. 81–100.

‘The so-called Temple of Apis/Hapi’, JEA 56(1970), pp. 196–7.

‘Triremes and the Saïte Navy’, JEA 59(1972), pp. 268–79.

'The so-called Galleys of Necho’, JEA 59(1972), pp. 307–8.

‘Were Necho's Triremes Phoenician?’ JHS 95(1975), pp. 45–61.

‘Once more Hammamat Inscription 191’, JEA 61(1975), pp. 54–66.

‘Necho and the Red Sea: some Considerations’, JEA 63(1977), pp.138–51.

‘Strabo and the Memphite Tauromachy’, Hommages à Maarten J.Vermaseren, II, Leiden, 1978, pp. 599–616.

‘Two Figured Ostraca from North Saqqâra’, JEA 64(1978), pp. 107–112.

‘Herodotus 2.96.1-2’, Classical Quarterly 29(1979), pp. 45–8.

‘M.Basch on Triremes: some Observations', JHS 100(1980), pp. 195–8.

'Nationalist Propaganda in Ptolemaic Egypt’, Historia 31(1982), pp. 33–55.

‘The Inscription of Udjahorresnet: a Collaborator's Testament’, JEA 68(1982), pp. 166–80.

 ‘Herodotus' Account of Pharaonic History’, Historia 36(1988),  pp. 22–53.



Editor of the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 65(1979)–71(1985)

Publications Editor for EES Excavations Memoirs until 1993

Sometime Editor of Kegan Paul’s Modern Egyptology Series


Book Reviews:

E.Graefe, Untersuchungen zur Wortfamilie bj3, JEA 59(1973), pp. 241–3.

Anne Burton, Diodorus Siculus Book 1, JEA 60(1974), pp. 287–90.

A.Rosalie David, Religious Ritual at Abydos, JEA 60(1974), pp. 285–6.

A.Göttlicher and W.Werner, Schiffsmodelle im alten Ägypten, Bibliotheca Orientalis 31(1974), pp. 75–8.

A.Bernand, Le Paneion d'El-Kanaïs, JEA 61(1975), pp. 301–3.

C.C. Walters, Monastic Archaeology in Egypt, JEA 61(1975), pp. 303–5.

F.Dunand, Le Culte d'Isis, JHS 96(1976), pp. 217–8.

H.S.Smith, A Visit to Ancient Egypt, JEA 63(1977), p. 190.

W.Barta, Untersuchungen zur Göttlichkeit des regierenden Königs, JEA 65(1979), pp. 188–90.

Semanas de Estudios Romanos. Volumen II.  Instituto de Historia.Vice-Rectoria Academica. Oficina de Promocion y Desarrollo. Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. 1984.

Welsh History Review.

[I have long since abandoned all reviewing as a bad use of scholarly time.]




Papers at international conferences include: Hérodote et les peuples non grecs,1988 (Fondation Hardt, Geneva); ‘ Psychology and Society in the Egyptian Cult of the Dead’ (1988, Yale).  On same USA trip also invited by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago to conduct the inaugural seminar in their Workshop on the Society and Religion of Ancient Egypt where I read a paper on ‘The Great Inscription of Khnumhotpe II at Beni Hasan’ (!988, Chicago); ‘Herodotus' Accounts of Egyptian Buildings’ (Johns Hopkins, 1991), ‘Herodotus on Greek Religion’ (The first International Conference of the University of Wales Institute of Classics and Ancient History at Gregynog, 1994).

 Participation as Egyptological expert in several television programmes shown on Channels 4 and 5 1998 and 2000 as well as several radio interviews.



Work In Progress:

An article on the psychology of battle in Ancient Egypt

A Social History of Egypt



Other Links of Interest:

Designed and wrote the audio-visual display on Egypt housed in the Swansea Egypt Centre

Archaeological field work: participated in the department's excavations at the Roman fort of Loughor in 1971 and 1972.  Excavated with the Egypt Exploration Society at North Saqqâra 1972–3.  Subsequently a founder-member of the Saqqâra Epigraphic Survey of the Egypt Exploration Society which began work in October 1976 on a series of Old Kingdom tombs in the Teti Pyramid Cemetery. 

Lectured widely on Egyptological and Classical subjects in many universities and institutions in the UK (e.g. Oxford, Cambridge, London, Durham, Bristol, Birmingham, Manchester, all colleges of the University of Wales, British Museum).

External examiner in Egyptology for Cambridge, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, UCL.

For some years a member of the Classics subject panel of the Welsh Joint Education Committee.  Member of the WJEC Ancient History sub-committee responsible for revising the A-Level Ancient History syllabus.

From 1985 until the mid 1990s a regular guest lecturer on Thomas Cook's Nile cruises. 

General Information

MA and DPhil (Oxon)

College of Arts and Humanities, History and Classics
TEL: +44 (0) 1792 205678 ext: 5188
FAX: +44 (0) 1792 295739
E-MAIL: A.B.Lloyd@swansea.ac.uk

Courses Taught