Swansea University

Story of SAWD

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The Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects: History

by David Parry

[From 1968 until his retirement in 1995, David Parry was Director of the Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects. This is an account of SAWD during that period, written upon his retirement, and published here for the first time. It has been modified and annotated only slightly, in order to update some statements. The text is Copyright © David Parry.]

I. Phase One of SAWD
What we have now come to call ‘Phase One’ of the Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects (or ‘SAWD’) was inaugurated at the Department of English Language and Literature of the University College, Swansea (now Swansea University) in October 1968. This first phase of the investigations aimed to gather material documenting the English spoken in rural areas of the Principality, whereas the aim of ‘Phase Two’, which began in 1985, was to document the English spoken in the more urban areas.

Having been privileged to receive training in Dialectology as a postgraduate student under the supervision of the late Professor Harold Orton and of Mr Stanley Ellis in the Department of English Language and Medieval English Literature in the University of Leeds during the academic sessions 1959-60 and 1960-61, just as the fieldwork for the Survey of English Dialects (hereafter ‘SED’) was drawing to a close, I was eager, on securing my teaching-post at Swansea in 1966, to try to set up a similar investigation of the English spoken in Wales—seeking, as had SED, to record the oldest living varieties of folk-speech, and using a questionnaire resembling as closely as practicable the one prepared by Professors Dieth and Orton for the work of the SED.1 It was hoped by these means to enable direct comparisons to be made between the material collected in England and that collected in Wales, including the eventual compilation of composite maps, even though there would, of course, be a lack of direct comparability with regard to the times at which the investigations took place, those for the SED having been virtually completed by the end of 1959—although in the event, three corpora of Anglo-Welsh material gathered by myself as a postgraduate during 1960 (those for Rhayader, Llanbister, and New Radnor, all in Powys [as DP notes below, the Welsh counties referred to in SAWD are those that existed between the reorganizations of 1974 and 1996]) were to be included in the Anglo-Welsh network. Both Professor Orton and the late Professor Cecil Price, who at that time was the head of Swansea's Department of English Language and Literature, gave their blessing to the project and so, by the summer term of 1968, I was seeking to attract one, or maybe two, suitably qualified graduate students interested in training to become the Survey's first fieldworkers, so that investigations could begin during the succeeding academic year.

We were in fact fortunate enough to find two such graduates: Mrs Anne Chesters, who had graduated a year or two previously from the College's Department of Romance Studies, and Mr (now Professor) Clive Upton, who graduated in 1968 from the College's Department of English Language and Literature. This excellent pioneering team began an intensive training course in Phonetics in the October of that year, and also during that autumn term, they and I began compiling a few extra questions that we thought it might prove profitable to add to the Dieth-Orton Questionnaire, designed to elicit information about certain linguistic items that we knew, from casual observation, to be current in some Anglo-Welsh dialects but that were not covered by Dieth-Orton. We also decided, in our own questionnaire, to omit a few of the Dieth-Orton questions altogether and to make some alterations to the wording of some of the others.2 By Christmas 1968 we had compiled, typed, and cyclostyled our own special version of the Dieth-Orton Questionnaire for use in Wales.3

By then, too, Mrs Chesters and Mr Upton had carried out a few preliminary inspections of areas that they had been tentatively thinking of investigating, making inquiries of local people and local institutions concerning suitable villages in which to work, and concerning the availability of elderly lifelong residents who might make suitable informants—our criteria for suitable informants being the same as those of SED.4 We were fortunate, in the event, in that informants fulfilling such criteria were readily found, and willing to cooperate with our fieldworkers, in all of the localities chosen for study. It goes without saying that we are immeasurably indebted to all of our informants—and likewise to all those people, up and down the Principality, who so kindly helped us in finding them.

And so our two pioneers set out in January 1969 to begin fieldwork in two localities in West Glamorgan: Mrs Chesters at Glais in the Swansea Valley and Mr Upton at Horton in the Gower Peninsula. Each was to go on to cover a good many further localities during the next eighteen months: Mrs Chesters in southern Powys, Mid Glamorgan and South Glamorgan (the present essay, like the chief publications of our Survey, uses the county designations introduced in the reorganisation of 1974), Mr Upton in the Gower Peninsula (in West Glamorgan) and Pembrokeshire (later south Dyfed). They found that, by and large, our questionnaire worked as well in Wales as had its parent version in England.

After they had been at work for about a year, Mrs Chesters and Mr Upton organised a well-attended one-day school on ‘English in South Wales’, held at the College in 1969, when the audience was privileged to hear contributions from a number of visiting speakers, including some from the Gower Society and from the Department of Dialect of the Welsh National Folk Museum, St Fagan's, Cardiff.

During that same academic session of 1968-9, a new ‘Special Option' course in elementary Linguistics was introduced into the English Department’s programme for first-year students intending to go on to take Single Honours courses in English Language and Literature. This proved sufficiently popular for it to be decided at the end of its first year of operation to offer a follow-up ‘Special Option’ lasting for two years in the Honours school. This option, which for many years was offered under the name ‘Dialectology’, was at first known as ‘Linguistics’, since the second year of the course included two series of seminars led by two of my colleagues on, respectively, Germanic Philology (by the late Mr David Sims) and the work of Chomsky (by Mr Ian Robinson).5 But the first year of the course was always, from the start, devoted to training intended to enable the student to prepare a scientific dissertation on the regional dialect of any locality of his or her choice: a training in phonetics and lexical and morphological analysis and—equally importantly—in fieldwork techniques. Those who preferred to do so were allowed to sit a conventional three-hour examination in the subject at Finals instead, but the vast majority of students who followed the course chose to submit the ‘dialect dissertation’. Although the dialects chosen for study often included ones that are spoken outside Wales (e.g. in England, Scotland, the Shetland Isles, and America), it is gratifying to be able to report that an appreciable number of these undergraduate dialectologists chose to work in Anglo-Welsh localities, and also that in the vast majority of cases their work was good enough to be included in the Survey. These students recorded the whole of their field-investigations electronically on cassettes that were subsequently used by me to check the accuracy of their written transcriptions of the collected material. Cassettes, transcriptions, and copies of the resulting dissertations were then added to an archive housed in the English Department, an archive which of course contains the material collected on varieties of English spoken outside the Principality as well. [This archive, left in the care of Robert Penhallurick on David Parry’s retirement, subsequently became the basis of the Archive of Welsh English.]

The next postgraduate students to join in the work of the Survey were Mr William Gould, a Classics graduate, and the late Miss Anne Gladwell (Dr McGill), both of Swansea and both of whom worked in Gwent. In addition to investigating the regional dialects of the county with our questionnaire in the now-established way, they both undertook shorter surveys of the occupational dialects of the coal-mining communities, Miss Gladwell at Llanhilleth and Mr Gould at Blaenafon, using the special questionnaire included by Peter Wright in his Language of British Industry.6 Miss Gladwell investigated also the ‘lore and language of schoolchildren’ at several centres in the county, using a questionnaire of her own devising that was of course based closely upon the material contained in Iona and Peter Opie's seminal work on the subject.7 These investigations of occupational dialects turned out to be the first of several excursus by SAWD investigators into the more specialised dialects that exist within the folk-speech of a community; it is of course the study of the latter to which the Survey has always given priority, the recording of the occupational dialects being regarded as a side-line to be added by individual investigators who have had time and inclination to do so; coverage of this aspect of dialect speech is indicated in the titles of the dissertations listed in the Bibliography of SAWD-related works.

The new ‘Special Option’ course on Linguistics (later called ‘Dialectology’) referred to above produced, at the end of its first two-year cycle in 1971, its first postgraduate fieldworker for the Survey, Mr Michael Bundy, who, having compiled for his final examinations a monograph on the dialect of Undy, Gwent, required no further special training before going out into the field. Mr Bundy chose to investigate the English speech of what was then called Carmarthenshire and later became part of Dyfed, where he was the first of our investigators to encounter communities in which Welsh was the first language of the majority of the people of the age-group from which informants were drawn (in the other areas investigated this had been the case of only the occasional informant in the occasional locality, the other informants in such places saying perhaps that they had spoken Welsh in their youth but now no longer did so, or that they could understand Welsh but not speak it, or that they were accustomed to hearing Welsh in Chapel but not elsewhere).

Mr Bundy was thus the first to be faced with such problems as were to become familiar to his successors later on: problems such as whether a given response, e.g. Welsh cardidwyn ‘the smallest and weakest pig of a litter’, was to be regarded as an organic element of an Anglo-Welsh dialect, in which it could be accorded the status of ‘loan-word borrowed from Welsh’, or whether it was used by Welsh-speakers because they simply knew no English equivalent—for the good reason that they never had occasion to refer in English to concepts of so specialised a nature. Mr Bundy's inquiries included also an investigation of the vocabulary associated with traditional local methods of fishing, and his presentation of his findings was enhanced by the valuable drawings and diagrams that he produced and that he exhibited in the foyer of the College Library, to illustrate the apparatus and methods that were employed. He also carried out inquiries into the lore and language of local schoolchildren.

In the summer of 1974, Mr Bundy was joined by our next fieldworker, Miss Christine Boyce (Mrs Morley), who had also been a member of our own undergraduate Linguistics class, and who had compiled a monograph on the dialect of Painscastle, south Powys. Miss Boyce was to carry out investigations at some 16 localities in Montgomeryshire (later part of northern Powys). Her work included, at many of her localities, extensive investigations of the lore and language of schoolchildren, in the course of which she collected material from children and also from elderly people recalling their distant youth; thus an interesting sketch of the development of this aspect of folk-speech was obtained. Miss Boyce also collected material on the language of the local slate-mining industry, as well as a measure of folk-lore in the form of information from each locality about traditional cures for warts.

During 1974 Miss Boyce and Mr Bundy organised a very interesting exhibition in the foyer of the College Library, displaying mapped information about the dialects of their respective areas of investigation and superbly-produced photographs showing local craftsmen at work. [See Photo Gallery.]

The ‘last of the line’, so far as postgraduate fieldworkers for this first, rural, part of the Survey was concerned, was to be Mr Robert Penhallurick, who was yet another former member of our undergraduate Linguistics class. He had compiled a monograph on the dialect of Llandybie, Carmarthenshire (later south Dyfed), as part of his Finals examinations, and was now to undertake the investigation of what was perhaps the most testing area of all: the counties of Gwynedd and Clwyd in the north, where, at all but a handful of the localities, all or almost all of the informants used Welsh as their first language. It is very gratifying to report that Dr Penhallurick's dissertation on these northern dialects was published in 1991—the first of the dissertations arising from the Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects to be published in book form (see Bibliography).

And thus, thanks not only to the postgraduate workers mentioned above, but also to numerous undergraduate investigators, we had, by the end of the academic session 1981-2, completed the network of investigated localities that are included in the final form of the Survey (Phase One). The network is shown on the Map of localities, which is accompanied by a full list of localities and fieldworkers.

It had already become possible, as the fieldwork in the two regions that, for the purposes of the Survey, we had defined as ‘the South-East’ and ‘the South-West’, had come to be completed, to compile volumes of analysed material collected from each of these regions. The Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects Volume 1: The South-East (Parry, 1977) covered southern Powys (the former counties of Radnorshire and Breconshire), West Glamorgan, Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan, and Gwent. Volume 2: The South-West (Parry, 1979) covered the whole of the county of Dyfed (formerly Cardiganshire, Pembrokeshire, and Carmarthenshire). [In this passage, DP gives the county designations of 1974, used by SAWD, and compares these with the pre-1974 designations. A comparison of the 1974 counties with those following the 1996 reorganization is given at the Map of localities.] These volumes embraced 34 and 25 localities respectively. Each consisted in: a general introduction, dealing with methods of investigation, details of the localities surveyed and of the (anonymous) informants; an account of the sounds recorded in responses to the special phonological questions, these sounds being presented as reflexes of their Middle English counterparts; discussion of features of morphology and syntax that differed from their counterparts in Standard English; and a glossary of lexical items. A number of distribution maps were included, those in Volume 2 covering material that had been recorded in Volume 1 for the south-east as well as that contained in Volume 2 itself for the south-west. Furthermore, two non-technical, popular-level booklets had been compiled, dealing with the dialects of, respectively, Gwent and the three Glamorgans.

Hence by 1982, when the fieldwork for the northern region had been completed, we were in a position to discern some of the major types of dialect-areas within the Principality: those along the borders with England, along with the Gower Peninsula and south Pembrokeshire (later southernmost Dyfed)—areas marked, as expected, by the presence of dialect-words recorded widely in England, by archaic grammatical forms, and by r-colouring of vowels; those like western Gwent and the Glamorgans (excepting the Gower Peninsula), where the dialectal lexis was still predominantly English but where sounds and intonation grew progressively more Welsh-influenced; those like Montgomeryshire (later north Powys), where a considerable amount of lexis borrowed from the English west midlands was shared by the local varieties of both English and Welsh (e.g. English wain-house ‘cart-shed’ = Welsh weinws); and those where the second-language English was full of Welsh sound-substitutions, Welsh-influenced syntactic features, and Welsh words used even when speaking English because no others were known—in naming such specialised concepts as, for instance, the hames (mwnci) of a harness, or the smallest and weakest of a litter of pigs.

II. A Grammar and Glossary of the Conservative Anglo-Welsh Dialects
With the planned network of investigated localities now complete, we began to consider the compilation of a volume dealing with 90 rural dialects spoken in places spread throughout the whole of the Principality. As mentioned above, volumes covering the south-east and the south-west had already appeared, and a volume covering the north in a similar fashion had been planned. But in the event it was decided to postpone the preparation of this northern volume in order to go ahead with the preparation of a comprehensive volume instead, a volume eventually published in 1999 as A Grammar and Glossary of the Conservative Anglo-Welsh Dialects of Rural Wales. [And, as things turned out, Penhallurick (1991) became in effect the ‘northern volume’ of SAWD.] It was determined that this volume should employ certain somewhat different kinds of analysis —especially of the sounds of the dialects—from those employed in The Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects Volumes 1 and 2. It was to include an atlas section, containing a considerably larger selection of maps, a few of which would be composite maps of England and Wales, displaying linguistic features found in both countries and recorded by both SED and our own fieldworkers in Wales.

The lexical section in each of the two preceding volumes had been divided into two: responses to items from the questionnaire, and ‘incidental material’—that is, material elicited during interviews with the informants but not forming direct answers to the questions posed by the fieldworker. But in the new volume, all the lexical items were to appear in a composite glossary, those that emerged as responses to the questionnaire being designated by special typography. The glossary was to be preceded by a short ‘thesaurus’, consisting in a list of questionnaire notions included along with lists of the dialectal expressions that were elicited for each notion.
The sections on morphology and syntax in the new volume were to be very like their counterparts in the former volumes: they were to contain analysed examples of each of these kinds of grammatical feature that differed from their equivalents in Standard English.
But in the section on sounds, the new volume was to introduce a very considerable degree of change in the method of treatment. As mentioned above, the two earlier SAWD volumes had presented the sounds of the present-day Anglo-Welsh dialects as reflexes of the sounds of Middle English. Obviously, there were few places in Wales at which any kind of actual continuum from Middle English through to the present day could be considered likely; arranging the discussion of the Anglo-Welsh sounds by means of a series of formulae of the type ‘ME [q] is represented by Anglo-Welsh [Q]’ was just a way of adapting for Wales a means of presentation that has always been found convenient in traditional accounts of the sounds of the dialects of England. This method of working was, and is, particularly useful when the sounds have to be presented in terms of phones that could not be assigned to phonemes—as in the case of the findings of the SED, since its Questionnaire made no provision for the elicitation of ‘minimal pairs’, having been compiled with other aims than this in mind. The same applied to our own Anglo-Welsh version of the Dieth-Orton Questionnaire. However, since Middle English is at least one step further off from contemporary Anglo-Welsh dialects than from contemporary dialects of England, it did seem worth considering presenting the Anglo-Welsh phones as reflexes of the sounds of contemporary RP (‘Received Pronunciation’) rather than as reflexes of the sounds of several centuries ago that underlie those of RP. But having taken the decision to do this, we felt it would be useful to go yet further, especially in the light of criticism levelled at both our own work and that of SED to the effect that neither had made any attempt to present the sound-systems of the dialects of the investigated localities.

Although the collected material contained no ‘minimal pairs’ (unless fortuitously), it still seemed worth while to attempt a grouping, a systematisation, a kind of ‘tentatively-proposed phonemicisation’ based on intuition and upon our own observational experience of what sound-differences appear to be phonemically significant to native speakers and what do not. Whilst we see the obvious desirability of arriving at an analysis of the sound-system of a dialect rather than just a list of its phones, we also firmly believe that one has no right to declare two sounds phonemically distinct in a dialect unless one can demonstrate, by means of ‘minimal pairs’, that this is the case. For this reason, it was decided to call the proposed sound-families not ‘phonemes’ but ‘Units’; and in order further to distinguish the tentative status of the latter from the established status of the phonemes of RP, we decided to use a distinctive type of notation for the Units. Whereas the symbols used for phonemic transcription of RP, though enclosed between slashes rather than square brackets, are mostly identical to those used in phonetic transcription of RP, we felt that the Anglo-Welsh Units should be written in a notation quite distinct from that of the phones by which they were realised. Accordingly, we devised an alphabet consisting in mainly upper-case roman letters, eked out by a few exotic ones, together with some digraphs consisting in a combination of a capital followed by a lower-case letter, such as /Sh/, /Ai/, /Oi/. This ‘alphabet’ contained about 50 symbols, a few of which, such as /Ll/ and /X/, indicated phonemes represented only in words regarded as Welsh loans into Anglo-Welsh. We then used this ‘alphabet’ as a way of ‘spelling’ a selected set of 144 words collected in our investigations. And this was our way of deciding which sounds belonged to which Units in which dialects. It turned out, not unexpectedly, that some systems had slightly more Units than others. For instance, dialects with both [u¿] and [¿u] in their phonetic inventory were reckoned to have both /U¿/ and /Iu/ in their Unit inventory; those without [¿u] were not assigned a /Iu/ Unit.

It can't be stressed too often that this kind of analysis claims to be no more than tentative, and there is no doubt that a systemic investigation of these dialects, based on the elicitation of suitable ‘minimal pairs’, would be highly desirable. Nevertheless, our analysis in terms of Units has certainly enabled us to achieve a number of things that we consider valuable—and without preventing readers who still wish to see Anglo-Welsh sounds as reflexes of Middle English sounds from being able to do so, for this, also, is explicitly provided for in the text. First, it has become possible to propose systemic accounts of all the investigated dialects. Second, it has provided a useful notation for items in other sections of the work, such as lexis, morphology and syntax. Third, it has provided at least as good a framework for discourse on the sounds as did the traditional Middle-English-based approach.
And so the first part of the discussion of the sounds consists in a general discussion of the Units, their respective phonetic realisations, and their lexical and geographical distribution. For instance, the material on the Unit /A/ begins by stating that /A/ has the realisations [a], [æ] and [¿]. Each phonetic realisation is then discussed in turn, in the following manner:

[a] corresponds to (i) RP /æ/ in apples at the following localities ... ; in man at the following localities ... ; (ii) RP /¿/ in quarry at the following localities ... ; in wash at the following localities ... ; (iii) RP /¿/ in one at the following localities ... (See pages 14-15 of Parry (1999))

The second part of the section on sounds is a series of analyses of the complete sound-systems of each of the 90 investigated localities, showing the distribution of each Unit and its various realisations in each of 144 specially selected words. The third and concluding part of the section is an index of the recorded forms of each of the 144 words. These forms are presented in terms of their componential Units, but their recorded phonetic forms at any given locality can of course be retrieved by reference back to the list of local sound-systems referred to above.

III. Phase Two of SAWD
In Phase Two of the Survey, our attention turned to the dialects of the urban areas. A good measure of fieldwork was accomplished by Dr Penhallurick in Grangetown (Cardiff), Caernarfon, Wrexham, and Carmarthen; by Mr James Lediard in Maesteg (Mid Glamorgan) and the surrounding district; and by Dr Adrian Willmott in Swansea. We must at this point express our gratitude to the British Academy for the award that made it possible to employ Dr Penhallurick and Dr Willmott as fieldworkers for the opening part of Phase Two. [These recordings are now in the Archive of Welsh English, and the material was used by Heli Paulasto for her book, Welsh English Syntax: Contact and Variation (2006).]

In addition to this fieldwork, it is a pleasure also to be able to speak of the intensive investigation of urban dialects in the Rhondda Valley carried out by Mrs Ceri George, which led to her submission of a doctoral dissertation on the dialects of this area in March 1990—the first of our graduate dissertations to deal exclusively with dialect in an urban area (see Bibliography). For this work, Mrs George had compiled a most useful questionnaire of her own which, naturally, included many items concerned with the vocabulary of coal-mining—the traditional, though now inactive, local industry. The dissertation was notable for its linkage of dialect with the sociology of the area.

In order further to encourage work on the dialects of the urban areas, a second SAWD questionnaire, dealing with matters deemed to be in the experience of town-dwellers, was devised in 1986, by the present writer and the members of the undergraduate class in Dialectology of that year.8 Some of its items we were glad to be able to borrow from the Dieth-Orton Questionnaire; the rest we devised ourselves. Several members of the Dialectology classes of the succeeding years produced Finals dissertations on individual urban areas, some of them in Wales (e.g. Cwmbran, Gwent and Port Talbot, West Glamorgan) and some in England.

Our aim in this work for Phase Two was to include samples of the speech not only of the oldest generation of dialect-speakers, the only group surveyed in Phase One, but also that of middle-aged and young speakers. Fieldworkers use a specially constructed phonological questionnaire of some 130 items9 in order to establish the speaker's phonological system, but once this was administered the rest of the interviewing tended to be informal in character—interviewees being encouraged to talk at whatever length they wished on subjects of interest to them, although in many cases the fieldworker began by posing questions designed to bring out the speaker's own perception of local speech and of its relationship to neighbouring accents and dialects. Two aims of this ‘conversational style’ of interviewing were to accumulate material that might be suitable for analysis of intonational patterns and to elicit non-standard grammatical features.

IV. The Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects and other scholarly projects and institutions
The Survey was privileged throughout most of its existence to enjoy liaisons with other scholarly projects and institutions. Professor Harold Orton always took a very kindly interest in what we were doing in Wales, and liaison with him and his colleagues on the Survey of English Dialects was close. The late Professor Alan Thomas of the Department of Linguistics at the University of North Wales, Bangor, was always ready to help us with his expert knowledge of the dialects of Welsh and was a welcome visitor to Swansea on many occasions. Dr Michael V. Barry of the Department of English at Queen's University, Belfast, from where he and his colleagues were conducting a Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech 10, took a friendly interest in our work, as also did the late Dr Martyn Wakelin, of the Royal Holloway College at Egham, Surrey. Mr Stanley Ellis and the Survey's ‘own’ Dr (now Professor) Clive Upton were both welcome visiting lecturers on their work in connexion with English dialectology. [Collaboration with Clive Upton and the Leeds Archive of Vernacular Culture continues.] Professor John Widdowson, the Director of the Centre for English Cultural Tradition and Language at the University of Sheffield [now the National Centre for English Cultural Tradition; Professor Widdowson retired in 2001], was a constant source of help, advice and encouragement. Mr Ellis, Professor Widdowson and the late Dr Wakelin were all, on occasion, so kind as to act as external examiners of postgraduate theses produced by our team of investigators. We have also been grateful for liaison with the Department of Dialects at the Welsh National Folk Museum, St Fagan's, Cardiff.

V. Publicity
Several methods of publicising the work of the Survey were employed at various times according as opportunities have arisen. Lectures to outside institutions have included addresses by the present writer to the Gower Society, the Neath Antiquarian Society, the Bangor University College Linguistics Society, the Monmouthshire Local History Society, the Port Talbot Local History Society, and the members of the Department of Dialect at the Welsh National Folk Museum, St Fagan's. Dr Penhallurick has given lectures on Welsh English, its varieties and study, to the Welsh Dialectology Circle of Cardiff University, as a visiting lecturer at the Universities of Åbo, Helsinki, and Oulu in Finland, as a participant in academic conferences in Finland, Scotland, and Germany, as well as to several local societies in South Wales.

Mr Bundy has written on the dialect of the traditional salmon-fishing industry at Goldcliff, Gwent, for Presenting Monmouthshire: The Journal of Gwent Local History Council. Dr Penhallurick has produced a number of papers on English in Wales. As mentioned in section I above, two popular-level booklets, on the dialects of Gwent and the Glamorgans respectively, were produced by the present writer a few years ago. Also, Professor Widdowson, as editor of Lore and Language, kindly allowed us space to publicise our work. Dr John Kirk with Professors Sanderson and Widdowson were meanwhile preparing a volume of papers on linguistic geography in Britain, to which they invited me to contribute. In my chapter, I endeavoured to discuss some of the special problems that arise in Wales and to show how, nevertheless, our Anglo-Welsh material did appear to be collatable, as we had hoped, with that collected in the Survey of English Dialects—especially since Dr Kirk, when re-drawing the base-map of the SED network of investigated localities so as to show the new county-boundaries created in 1974, had kindly extended this into a composite map that included our localities in Wales. Also at about this time we were glad to accept Dr N. Coupland's invitation to contribute chapters on the conservative dialects of north Carmarthenshire and south Pembrokeshire respectively to his volume of papers on English in Wales. A more popular-level account of the dialects in Gwent had also been published in Planet. (For all of the above, see also the Bibliography.)

Dr Penhallurick and the present writer have also given many interviews to representatives of the local press and of both local and national radio in which we have been encouraged to bring the work to the notice of the general public in Wales.

[After David Parry’s retirement, dialectology remained in the curriculum at Swansea (though not as a discrete course), and some postgraduate research on Welsh English continued. Rob Penhallurick has produced further publications on Welsh English. But—for a variety of reasons—the Survey of Anglo-Welsh Dialects ceased to be active. Rather, efforts were turned towards consolidating and developing an Archive of Welsh English, as a repository of materials collected by SAWD and its associated projects, and as a resource for scholars.]

1 Dieth, E. and H. Orton, A Questionnaire for a Linguistic Atlas of England, Leeds: Leeds Literary and Philosophical Society, 1952. Reprinted in H. Orton, Survey of English Dialects (A) Introduction, Leeds: E. J. Arnold, 1962.

2 Full details of the omissions and additions are as follows:

(i) The following items, contained in the Dieth-Orton Questionnaire under the numbers indicated, were omitted:

AFTERBIRTH III.1.13; BELCHING VI.13.13; BREAK WIND VI.13.16; BREECH-BAND I.5.10; BRING FORTH (of rabbits) III.13.14; CARTING DUNG II.1.4; CLOT OF COW-DUNG II.1.6; COW-DUNG I.3.12; COWS' LEGS IX.8.7; CURB-STONE I.3.9; DIAPER V.11.3; EVENER I.8.4; FARMSTEAD I.1.2; HANDLES (of plough) I.8.2; HAY-LOFT I.3.18; HIP-BONE (of cow) III.2.1; LOAD (the cart) II.1.5; MUCK-BRUSH I.3.14; MUCK-FORK I.3.13; RABBIT-DROPPINGS III.13.15; SHEATH (of horse) III.4.9; SHEEP-DUNG II.1.7; STACKYARD II.1.4; STALE URINE VI.8.8; STRAW-YARD I.1.9; SWINGLE-TREE I.8.3; TEATS (of cow) III.2.6; T-SHAPED PLOUGH-BEAM END I.8.5; TUSSOCK II.2.9; UDDER III.2.5; URINE (in cow-house) I.3.10; UTERUS (of cow) III.2.4; VOMIT VI.13.14; VULVA (of cow) III.2.3.

(ii) The following notions that are not sought in the Dieth-Orton Questionnaire were added (underlining here indicates that the key-word is Welsh, dialectal, or of limited currency):

COAL-HOUSE; CUPBOARD UNDER THE STAIRS; CWTSH ‘coal-house’; GLORY-HOLE; HAIRY BAGS; HOBS; HORNLESS (of sheep); KITCHEN (reverse question; i.e. the informant is asked what he/she understands by this word); MAWN; MEADOWS; ON A FRIDAY; PISTYLL ‘a spring of water’; PUT THEM (namely, dishes) AWAY; QUIST ‘wild pigeons’; SCISSORS; SHEPPAN; SINK (domestic); SKIMMER; SLIDE-CAR; SPANNIN; SPRING (of water); TO SQUAT; STIPE; WOOD-PIGEONS.

3 Chesters, A., C. S. Upton, and D. R. Parry, A Questionnaire for a Linguistic Atlas of England, Modified for Use in Welsh Localities, Swansea: privately published, 1968.

4 See Orton, H., Survey of English Dialects (A) Introduction, Leeds: E. J. Arnold, 1962, Chapter 1, § 1.5, pp. 15-16.

5 The stimulating quality of Mr Robinson's exposition and critique of Chomsky's approach to syntactic analysis can be gauged by readers of I. C. Robinson, The New Grammarian's Funeral: A Critique of Noam Chomsky's Linguistics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

6 Wright, P., The Language of British Industry, London: Macmillan, 1974.

7 Opie, Iona and Peter, The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren, London: Oxford University Press, 1959.

8 Evans, C. and others, The Urban Dialect Questionnaire, 2nd revised edition, Swansea: privately published, 1987.

9 Parry, D., A New Phonological Questionnaire, Swansea: privately published, 1988.

10 See Adams, G. B., M. V. Barry, and P. M. Tilling, ‘The Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech: A Reappraisal of the Techniques of Traditional Dialect Geography’, in J. M. Kirk, S. Sanderson and J. D. A. Widdowson (eds), Studies in Linguistic Geography: The Dialects of English in Britain and Ireland, London: Croom Helm, 1985, pp. 67-80.


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