Professor Phillip Bobbitt:
Garments of Court and Palace: Machiavelli and the World That He Made. New York. Atlantic Monthly Press, (2013).
Terror and Consent: the Wars for the Twenty-first Century. Knopf/Penguin, (2008).
The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace, and the Course of History. Foreword by Michael Howard. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. (Paperback 2003. 2003 Grand Prize Winner, Robert W. Hamilton Awards
Constitutional Interpretation. Blackwell, (1991).
Tragic Choices. (Co-author: Guido Calabresi, former Yale Law School Dean and currently Judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit) New York: W.W. Norton, 1990
United States Nuclear Strategy: A Reader. (Co-editor, with Gregory F. Treverton and Lawrence Freedman.) New York: New York University Press, (1989).
Democracy and Deterrence: The History and Future of Nuclear Strategy. New York: St. Martin's Press, (1987).
Constitutional Fate: Theory of the Constitution. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, (1984).
"War Powers: An Essay on John Hart Ely's War and Responsibility: Constitutional Lessons of Vietnam and Its Aftermath." Michigan Law Quarterly 92, no. 6 (May 1994): 1364-1400. (Argues for the unconstitutionality of the War Powers Resolution.)
"The Warrantless Debate Over Wiretapping." The New York Times, August 22, 2007. (Argues for the necessity of legislation amending the legal framework for the interception of communications from foreign sources.)
"In This New Age of Warfare We Need Clearer Rules on When to Cross Borders." The Guardian, June 16, (2008).
"Questions of Security." with John C. Danforth, The New York Times, September 11, (2008).
"The Flag-Waving is Over: This is how the President can Change the World." The Guardian, November 9, (2008).
"'Terror' is the Enemy." The New York Times, December 14, (2008).
"Obama is Right: This is No Time for Posturing on Iran" Evening Standard, June 22, (2009).
"Calculus and Compassion" The New York Times, July 8, (2009).
"The Age of Information has Changed Terrorism Forever" The Independent, December 16, (2010).
Dr Arwel Davies:
Lester, Mercurio and Davies World Trade Law: Text, Materials and Commentary, 2nd edition (Hart Publishing, 2012)
World Trade Law: Text, Materials and Commentary, with Lester, Mercurio and Leitner (Hart Publishing, 2008)
Articles and Chapter Contributions
Davies, A. (2014). Technical Regulations and Standards under the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. Legal Issues of Economic Integration 41(1), 37-63.
Davies, A. (2015). The GATT Article III:8(a) Procurement Derogation and Canada - Renewable Energy. Journal of International Economic Law 18(3), 543-554.
‘State Liability for Judicial Decisions in European Union and International Law’ 61(3) International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2012) 585.
‘Scoping the Boundary Between the Trade Law and Investment Law Regimes: When Does a Measure Relate to Investment?’ 14(3) Journal of International Economic Law (2012) 793.
‘The national treatment and exceptions provisions of the Agreement on Government Procurement and the pursuit of horizontal policies’ in Arrowsmith and Anderson (eds.) The WTO Regime on Government Procurement: Challenge and Reform (CUP, 2011) 429-444.
The DSU Article 3.8 Presumption that an Infringement Constitutes a Prima Facie Case of Nullification or Impairment: When Does it Operate and Why? 13 Journal of International Economic Law (2010) 181-204
Interpreting the Chapeau of GATT Article XX in Light of the 'New' Approach in Brazil-Tyres 43 Journal of World Trade Law (2009) 507-540.
The Public Procurement Dimension of Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, in Lester and Mercurio (eds), Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements: Case Studies (Cambridge University Press, 2009) 274-307
Connecting or Compartmentalizing the WTO and United States Legal Systems? The Role of the Charming Betsy Canon 10 Journal of International Economic Law (2007) 117-49.
Reviewing Dispute Settlement at the World Trade organization: A Time to Reconsider the Role/s of Compensation 5 World Trade Review (2006) 31-67.
Mandatory and Discretionary Legislation in WTO Law: A Distinction Worth Preserving? 31 Legal Issues of Economic Integration (2004) 185-218.
Interpreting the Chapeau of GATT Article XX. Presented at Theorizing the Global Legal Order, Swansea University May 2008.
The Role/s of Compensation in WTO Dispute Settlement.Presented at the Annual British Institute of International and Comparative Law WTO conference, May 2005.
Reforming WTO Dispute Settlement: The Way Forward. Presented at the 2004 Annual Conference of the Society of Legal Scholars – Sheffield.
Public Procurement Conference – University of Nottingham, panel member - June 2003.
Dr Bebhinn Donnelly-Lazarov:
A Philosophy of Criminal Attempts (Forthcoming, Cambridge University Press)
A Natural Law Approach to Normativity (Ashgate, 2007).
Articles and Chapter Contributions
‘Law as a Claim-Maker: A Review of Stefano Bertea, The Normative Claim of Law’(Forthcoming, Jurisprudence, December 2013)
‘Dworkin’s Morality and its Limited Implications for Law’, Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, January 2012.
‘The Figuring of Morality in Adjudication: Not so Special?’ 24 Ratio Juris 3, 2011.
‘Possibility, Impossibility and Extraordinariness in Attempts’ Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence (2010)
‘Natural Law and the Possibility of Universal Normative Foundations’ (Hart Publishing, 2010: Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law, Volume 2, Edited by Hélène Ruiz Fabri, Rüdiger Wolfrum and Jana Gogolin)
'Sentencing and Consequences: A Divergence between Blameworthiness and Liability to Punishment.' 2007 10 New Criminal Law Review 3, 392-414.
'Natural Law and Ecocentrism' (2007), 19 Journal of Environmental Law, 89-101. (With Patrick Bishop)
“M Pettenger (ed): ‘The Social Construction of Climate Change: Power, Knowledge, Norms, Discourses’”, The Journal of Environmental Law 20, 3, (2008), 486-9 (review)
'Subjectivity and Law's Fields of Enquiry' (2007), 20 Ratio Juris, 77-96.
'The Epistemic Importance of the Factual Base in New and Traditional Natural Law Theory' (2006), 25 Law and Philosophy, 1-29.
‘ “Is” and “Ought” in Law and Justice in Community, Trinity College Dublin, 2011
‘Adjudication’s Necessary Engagement with Morality; Why it does not Establish a Moral Purpose in Law’, University of Edinburgh, 2010
‘Natural Law and the Possibility of Universal Normative Foundations’ ESIL Conference, Heidelberg, September 2008
‘The role of morality in adjudication: not so special?’ Trinity College Dublin (Irish Jurisprudence Society) and Exeter University, 2008
'Sentencing and Consequences: A Divergence between Blameworthiness and Liability to Punishment', School of Law research seminar series, Swansea University, September 2006.
'A New and Traditional Natural Law Analysis of Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism', Society of Legal Scholars Annual Conference, University of Strathclyde, 2005. (With Patrick Bishop)
'Teleology and Moral Duty' Oxford Jurisprudence Discussion Group, Trinity College Oxford, June, 2003.
'Evaluation and Legal Theory' Legal Theory Reading Group, School of Law, University of Birmingham, January 2002.
Associate Professor Helen Quane:
Quane, H. (2015). 'The Significance of an Evolving Relationship: ASEAN States and the Global Human Rights Mechanisms'. Human Rights Law Review 15(2), 283-311.
Quane, H. (2014). Silence in International Law. 84 British Yearbook of International Law 240-270
Quane, H. (2013). Legal Pluralism and International Human Rights Law: Inherently Incompatible, Mutually Reinforcing or Something in Between?. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 33(Issue 4), 675-702.
Quane, H. (2012). "A further dimension to the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights? Recent developments concerning the rights of indigenous peoples”. Harvard Human Rights Journal25(1), 49-83.
Quane, H. (2007). Rights in conflict? The rationale and implications of using human rights in conflict prevention strategies. Virginia Journal of International Law (2007), 463-523.
Quane, H. (2007). Challenging the Report of an Independent Inquiry under the Human Rights Act.Public Law (2007), 529-544.
Quane, H. (2006). The Strasbourg Jurisprudence and the meaning of a 'public authority' under the Human Rights Act. Public Law (2006), 106-123.
Books and Book Chapters
Quane, H. (2015) International Human Rights Law as a Catalyst for the Recognition and Evolution of Non-State Law. In Michael A. Helfand (Ed.), Negotiating State and Non-State Law: The Challenges of Global and Local Legal Pluralism. (pp. 111-133). Cambridge University Press (part of the American Society of International Law (ASIL) Studies in International Legal Theory collection).
Quane, H. (2011) "Self-Determination and Minority Protection after Kosovo". In Summers, J., (ed.), Kosovo: A Precedent? The Declaration of Independence, the Advisory Opinion and Implications for Statehood, Self-Determination and Minority Rights. (pp. 181-212). Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Quane, H. (2011) "The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: New Directions for Self-Determination and Participatory Rights?”. In Allen, S., and Xanthaki, A. (eds.), Reflections on the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. (pp. 259-287). Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Quane, H. (2014). The Dynamics of an Evolving Relationship: ASEAN States and the Global Human Rights Mechanisms. Presented at Southeast Asian Human Rights Studies Network (SEAHRN) Conference on Human Rights and Peace and Conflict in Southeast Asia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 15-17 October 2014.,
Quane, H. (2014). "The Dynamics of an Evolving Relationship: ASEAN States and the Global Human Rights Mechanisms". Presented at Conference on "Beyond Cultural Relativism: The Evolving Human Rights Mechanism of the ASEAN in Context". University of the Philippines, Diliman, College of Law, Manila, the Philippines, 13th October 2014.,
Quane, H. (2014). Legal pluralism and international human rights law. Presented at 'Family and Cultural Life: Round-table Discussion with Experts as part of the 10th Session of the UN Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and Practice'. United Nations Office at Geneva (Palais des Nations). Contribution at the invitation of the UN Working Group on Discrimination Against Women in Law and Practice.,
Quane, H. (2014). The dynamics of an evolving relationship: ASEAN States and the global human rights mechanisms. Presented at 'Beyond cultural relativism: The evolving human rights mechanism of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in context.' Swansea University Conference,
Quane, H. (2014). Member, Roundtable Panel on 'The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and its Implementation'. Presented at Southeast Asian Studies Symposium, Keble College, University of Oxford,
Quane, H. (2013). The influence of international human rights law on the development of non-state law. Presented at 'The Rise of Non-State Law'. American Society of International Law (ASIL) International Legal Theory Interest Group Symposium. Washington DC.,
Quane, H. (2009). A further dimension to the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights? Recent developments concerning the rights of indigenous peoples. Presented at The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action: Revisiting Fundamental Themes in the Light of Current Trends and Future Prospects. Welsh Centre for International Affairs and Swansea Law School Conference, Temple of Peace, Cardiff.,
Professor Volker Roeben:
Towards the European Energy Union. European energy strategy within international law (Cambridge: CUP, forthcoming 2016)
Coexistence, Cooperation and Solidarity, Liber amicorum Rüdiger Wolfrum, 2 vols, ed with Doris König et al (Leiden: Marinus Nijhoff, 2012). Contribution: 'Legitimacy of UN Member States', 1507
Theorising the Global Legal Order (with Andrew Halpin) (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2009)
Legitimacy in International Law ed. (with R. Wolfrum) (Berlin: Springer, 2008). Contribution: ‘What about Hobbes: Legitimacy as a matter of the functional and rational exercise of international public power’, 353.
International Law in Need of Reform? ed.(with Doris König et al (Berlin: Springer, 2008). Contribution: ‘Managing risk to global stability: a newfound role for the UN Security Council?’, 51.
Außenverfassungsrecht - Eine Untersuchung zur auswärtigen Gewalt des offenen Staates (External Constitutional Law - Foreign Relations Law of the Open State) (Stuttgart: Mohr Siebeck, 2007), 570 pp.
Developments of International Law in Treaty Making ed. (with R. Wolfrum) (Berlin: Springer, 2005). Contribution: ‘Proliferation of Actors’, 511.
Terrorism as a Challenge for National and International Law: Security versus Liberty? ed. (with C. Walter et al) (Berlin: Springer, 2004). Contribution: ‘The Role of International Conventions and General International Law in the Fight against International Terrorism,’ 789.
Articles and Chapter Contributions
‘The Equitable Distribution of Marine Resources by Agreement of States – the case of the South China Sea’, (2015) 1 Chinese Journal of Global Governance 36
‘Transboundary Air Pollution’, entry, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: OUP, 2015)
‘Environmental Treaty bodies’, entry, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: OUP, 2015)
‘The Area of Freedom, Security and Justice. Commentary of Articles 67 through 76 TFEU’, in Recht der Europäischen Union (Law of the European Union), M. Nettesheim ed. (Munich: Beck, 2014).
‘Governing Shared Offshore Electricity Infrastructure in the Northern Seas’, (2013) 62 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 839.
‘Responsibility in International Law’, (2012) 16 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 99
The Economic and Social Council, Articles 61 and 62, in The Charter of the United Nations. Commentary, Bruno Simma et al eds. (3rd ed, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)
‘Eco-labelling’, entry, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: OUP, 2012)
‘Conferences and Meetings of States Parties’, entry, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: OUP, 2012)
‘Law-Making by International Organisations’, entry, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: OUP, 2012)
‘The ICJ Advisory Opinion on the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo: Rules or Principles’, (2010) 2 Göttingen Journal of International Law 1063
‘Der offene Staat des Grundgesetzes: Rückblick auf 1919 und 1848‘ (The open state of the Basic Law in historical context), in Das Grundgesetz nach 60 Jahren, T Giegerich ed. (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 2010), 20.
‘Auswärtige Gewalt’, in Verfassungsrecht nach 60 Jahren, S. Huster and R. Zintl eds. (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2009), 15
‘The Enforcement Authority of International Institutions”, in The Exercise of Public Authority by International Institutions, Armin von Bogdandy et al. eds., (Springer: Berlin, 2009), 819
‘International Law as Public Law: On Recent and Historical German approaches to international law’ (with Jochen von Bernstorff), (2009) 103 American Journal of International Law, 609
‘Der völkerrechtliche Rahmen für die Sezession einer Minderheit aus dem Staatsverband: Kosovo als Präzedenzfall?, (2009) 84 Friedens-Warte (Journal of International Peace), 73
‘Funktionen des Verwaltungsakts" (Functions of the administrative act), (2008) 99 Verwaltungsarchiv,46
‘Arts. 12, 13 and 14," Commentary, in WTO - Institutions and Dispute Settlement’ Max Planck Commentaries on World Trade Law , P.-T. Stoll et al eds (The Hague, Kluwer International, 2007)
‘The regulation of financial services in the EU‘, in: The Regulation of International Financial Markets - Perspectives for Reform, T. Marauhn & R. Grote eds. (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), 115.
Professor Jukka Snell:
‘The Trilemma of European Economic and Monetary Integration, and Its Consequences’ (2016) 22 European Law Journal (forthcoming)
‘Economic Justifications and the Role of the State’ in P Koutrakos, N Nic Shuibhne, and P Syrpis (eds), Exceptions from EU Free Movement Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, forthcoming)
‘Fundamental Rights Review of National Measures: Nothing New under the Charter?’ (2015) 21 European Public Law 285-308.
‘The Internal Market and the Philosophies of Market Integration’ in C Barnard and S Peers (eds), European Union Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) 300-324.
‘Legitimacy of Free Movement Case Law: Process and Substance’ in M Adams, H de Waele, J Meeusen and G Straetmans (eds), Judging Europe's Judges: The Legitimacy of the Case Law of the European Court of Justice (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2013) 109-126.
‘Varieties of Capitalism and the Limits of European Economic Integration’ (2010-11) 13 Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 415-434
‘The notion of and a general test for abuse of rights: some normative reflections’ in R de la Feria and S Vogenauer (eds), Prohibition of Abuse of Law: A New General Principle of EU Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2011) 219-231.
‘Free Movement of Capital: Evolution as a Non-Linear Process’ in P Craig and G de Búrca (eds), The Evolution of EU Law (2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) 547-574.
‘The notion of market access: a concept or a slogan?’ (2010) 47 Common Market Law Review 437-472.
'Free movement of services and the Services Directive: the legitimacy of the case law' in J van de Gronden (ed), The EU and WTO Law on Services (Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2009) 31-54.
'European constitutional settlement", an ever closer union, and the Treaty of Lisbon: democracy or relevance?' (2008) 33 European Law Review 619-642.
'Freedom to Provide Services in the Case Law and in the Services Directive: Problems, Solutions and Institutions' in UB Neergaard, R. Nielsen, and LM Roseberry (eds), The Services Directive - Consequences for the Welfare State and the European Social Model (Copenhagen: DJOF Publishing, 2008) 171-197.
'Non-discriminatory tax obstacles in Community law' (2007) 56 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 339-370.
'Economic aims as justification for restrictions on free movement' in A Schrauwen (ed), Rule of Reason: Rethinking Another Classic of EC Legal Doctrine (Groningen: Europa Law Publishing, 2005) 35-56.
'And Then There Were Two: Products and Citizens in Community Law' in T Tridimas and P Nebbia (eds), European Union Law for the Twenty-First Century (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004) 49-72.
'European courts and intellectual property: a tale of Hercules, Zeus and Cyclops' (2004) 29 European Law Review 178-197.
'Who's Got the Power? Free Movement and Allocation of Competences in EC Law' (2003) 22 Yearbook of European Law 323-351.
'Free Movement of Pharmaceutical Products: An Overdose of Cheap Drugs?' (2003) 14 European Business Law Review 507-521.
Goods and Services in EC Law: A Study of the Relationship between the Freedoms (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) pp251, xliv.
Professor Joel P. Trachtman:
The Future of International Law: Global Government (Cambridge University Press), (2013)
The Tools of Argument: How the Best Lawyers Think, Argue, and Win, Createspace, (2013)
Developing Countries in the WTO Legal System (co-editor with Chantal Thomas, and chapter author), Oxford University Press, (2009)
Ruling the World: Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance (co-editor with Jeffrey Dunoff, and chapter author), Cambridge University Press, (2009)
The International Law of Economic Migration: Toward the Fourth Freedom, Upjohn Institute, (2009)
International Law and International Politics (editor), Ashgate Press, (2008)
The Economic Structure of International Law, Harvard University Press, (2008)
Trachtman, Joel P. The Economic Structure of International Law. Harvard University Press, (2008)
Trachtman, Joel P. The International Economic Law Revolution and the Right to Regulate, (2006)
Review Essay: The Anti-Globalization Paradox: Freedom to Enter Into International Law is Real Freedom (review of Dani Rodrik, The Globalization Paradox) The World Economy, July 2013.
Philippines—Taxes on Distilled Spirits: Toward a Border Tax Adjustment? 12 World Trade Review 297 (2013) (with Damien Neven).
Open Economy Law, in Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Politics: The State of the Art (Cambridge University Press 2012).
Incorporating Development in a Trans-Pacific Partnership among Diverse Members, in The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) – A Quest for Twenty-first Century Trade Agreement (Cambridge University Press 2012).
Who Cares About Human Rights? The Supply and Demand of International Human Rights Law, 44 NYU Journal of International Law and Politics 851 (2012).
The Crisis of International Law, 44 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law (2011).
Fragmentation, Coherence, and Synergy in International Law, 2 Transnational Legal Theory 505 (2011).
Interpretation and Institutional Choice at the WTO, 52 Virginia Journal of International Law 103 (2011) (with Gregory Shaffer) (subject of discussion on Opinio Juris blog).
Incomplete Harmonization Contracts in International Economic Law: Report of the Panel, China—Measures Affecting the Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights, 10 World Trade Review 63-86 (2011) (with Kamal Saggi).
Persistent Objectors, Cooperation, and the Utility of Customary International Law, 21 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 221 (2010).
The International Law of Financial Crisis: Spillovers, Subsidiarity, Fragmentation, and Cooperation, 13:3 Journal of International Economic Law 719-742 (2010).
International Law and Domestic Political Coalitions: The Grand Thoery of Compliance with International Law, 11 Chicago Journal of International Law (2010).
Yuan to Fight About It? The WTO Legality of China’s Exchange Rate Regime, in VOXEU e-book, edited by Simon Evenett, April 20, 2010.
Review Essay: The Law Market, by Erin A. O'Hara and Larry E. Ribstein (Oxford, 2009), forthcoming in American Journal of International Law.
Subsidization, Price Suppression, and Expertise: Causation and Precision in Upland Cotton (with André Sapir), 7 (Special Issue 1) World Trade Review 183, (2008)
"Canada-Wheat: Discrimination, Non-Commercial Considerations, and the Right to Regulate Through State Trading Enterprises (with Bernard Hoekman)" 7 (Special Issue 1) World Trade Review 45, (2008)
Embedding Mutual Recognition at the WTO, 14:5 Journal of European Public Policy 780, (2007)
Regulatory Jurisdiction and the WTO, 10 Journal of International Economic Law 3, (2007)
The WTO Cathedral, 43 Stanford Journal of International Law 127, (2007)
Welcome to Cosmopolis, World of Boundless Opportunity, 39 Cornell International Law Journal 477 (2006)
Trachtman, Joel P and George Norman. "The Customary International Law Game." American Journal of International Law 99, no. 3 (2005): 541-580
Trachtman, Joel P. "Book Review: "Conflict of Norms in Public International Law: How WTO Law Relates to Other Rules of International Law" By Joost Pauwelyn." American Journal of International Law, 2005, 855
WTO Judicial Interpretation, in The Oxford Handbook on The World Trade Organization (with Gregory Shaffer) (Oxford University Press 2012).
Doing Justice: The Politics and Economics of International Distributive Justice, in Global Justice and International Economic Law: Opportunities and Prospects (Cambridge University Press 2012).
The WTO and Development Policy in China and India, in China, India and the International Economic Order (Cambridge University Press 2010).
International Economic Law Research: A Taxonomy, in International Economic Law: The State and Future of the Discipline (Colin B. Picker, Isabella D. Bunn & Douglas W. Arner, eds., (2008).
Trachtman, Joel P. ""Negotiations on Domestic Regulation and Trade Services (GATS Article VI): A Legal Analysis of Selected Current Issues."" In Reforming the World Trading System: Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance, ed. Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, (2005)
Trachtman, Joel P. "Unilateralism and Multilateralism in U.S. Human Rights Laws Affecting International Trade." In International Trade and Human Rights: Foundations and Conceptual Issues, eds. Frederick Abbott, Christine Breining-Kaufmann and Thomas Cottier, University of Michigan Press, (2005)
Trachtman, Joel P. "Economic Analysis and International Law." In Economic Analysis of Law: A European Perspective, ed. Jeffrey L. Dunoff, (2003)
Trachtman, Joel P. "The Agency Model of Judging in Economic Integration: Balancing Responsibilities." In The Role of the Judge in International Trade Regulation: Experience and Lessons for the WTO, eds. Thomas Cottier and Petros C. Mavroidis, (2003)