Gregynog, 2001 - Other Speakers
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Kamara (Foundation of the Hellenic World) Urban
and Rural Religion in Late Antique Anatolia: From Pagan Diversity to
Dr Rustem Shukorov
(Moscow State University) 'New Evidence on Crypto-Muslims
in Anatolia During the Conquests of Tamerlane (ca. 1400-02)'
Bryer (University of Birmingham) 'F.W. Hasluck
and the Crypto-Christians of Trebizond: Some Answers'
Poutouridu (SUNY, Binghampton), 'Crypto-Christianity in the Ottoman
Black Sea' (no abstract)
Hovann (USC) 'Crypto-Christianity and an Armenian-speaking
Islamic Community: the Hemshins'.
(Foundation of the Hellenic World)
'Rural' Religion in Late Antique Anatolia: From Pagan Diversity to Christian
mainly on archaeological and epigraphic evidence, this paper aims at
approaching three issues: a) what were the differences between urban
and rural paganism in Late Antiquity (i.e. different cults, different
celebrations to the same cults etc.)? b) What were the differences between
urban and rural Christianity (i.e. administrative, liturgical and/or
doctrinal differences)? and c) Do these differences imply strong cultural
differences between city and countryside that permeate such areas of
daily life and thought as religion? At present I plan to restrict
my research in the areas of Lycia, Cilicia and Cappadocia, but further
restriction might be recommended by the material itself as preparations
for the paper continue.
Rustem Shukorov, Moscow State University
Evidence on Crypto-Muslims in Anatolia During the Conquests of Tamerlane
The present paper discusses the relationship between Christianity and
Islam in Anatolia on the earliest stages of Turkic conquests, an area
that was always within the scope of the scholarly interests of F.W.
Hasluck The piece examines a passage from an unpublished work
of Hafiz-i Abru, a famous Persian writer of the first half of the 15th
century, which testified that some Anatolian Christians, subjects of
Christian states, confessed Islam secretly. As I will try to show, Turkish
crypto-Muslims, living presumably, in the Pontos, were implied here.
These Turkish Christian communities were an inevitable by-product of
both Turkish conquests and defensive activity of the local Christians.
At the same time, Anatolian sources (both Greek and Muslim) testify
numerous evidences of a relative simplicity of transitions from Islam
to Christianity and vice versa and, hence, instability of religious
situation in Anatolia in the times of Turkic conquests.
Bryer, University of Birmingham
and the Crypto-Christians of Trebizond: Some Answers
his 'The Crypto-Christians of Trebizond', Journal of Hellenistic Studies,
41 (1921), 199-202, Hasluck left a posthumous time-bomb (one page of
text muffled by three of notes), which still reverberates. Hasluck knew
that even in the twilight world of Christianity and Islam under the
Sultans, later to be explored by Michel Balivet (1994), there was something
exceptional about Trebizond. In 1983 Anthony Bryer, and in 1985 Konstantinos
Photiades, published quite different answers to Hasluck's questions
- the former an economic and administrative explanation for crypto-Christianity
in 1829-1856, the latter an argument which accounts for why 19 May 1919
is today marked both as a national holiday in Turkey and as Pontic 'Holocaust'
day in Greece. It is to be hoped that this is the final round.
and an Armenian-speaking Islamic Community: The Hemshins.
Armenians of the Hemshin district, located in the eastern section of
the Pontos, were affected by forced Islamization at the beginning
of the eighteenth century, and today are the only community of Armenian-speaking
Muslims. As with the Pontic Greeks and some Albanian communities, conversion
was often only external at the outset, so that crypto-Christians (Kes-Kes,
Arm. half and half) constituted a majority of the Hemshin population
in the following centuries. To this day, the Hemshins celebrate Vartevar,
the feast of the transfiguration of Christ, with a festival, although
the original religious significance of the event seems to have been
lost on them. This paper will examine the historical circumstances surrounding
the conversion of the Hemshins to Islam, the subsequent retention of
crypto-Christian practices within the converted community, and the emergence
of a Hemshin ethnic identity organized around the somewhat contradictory
poles of allegiance to Islam and use of the Armenian language.
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